When electron and then proton particles were discovered they were seen as the source of the already established negative and positive charges. Like particle charges repulsed one another whilst unlike particle charges attracted one another. They did so with forces, calculated as per Coulomb’s Law, and which, like the attractive gravity force, delivered actions at a distance via force fields.
In my living model there are no force fields and boson photon particles don’t carry forces. Atomic particles are compositions of living energy that have albeit limited desires for the photon energy flows of space; they seek to process them at light speed and despatch with purpose those they don’t want at light speed, relative to them.
The above diagram gives some indication of atomic particle sizes and reveals just how far away a typical close electron is located and held relative to the atom’s nucleus of proton and neutron particles. The rapidly increasing attractive charge force between electron and proton should cause them to collide but it doesn’t. Classical physics concepts don’t explain why and quantum explanations lack credence.
Why Particles Vibrate
Attractions and repulsions both at a distance and within atoms are better explained if we ditch the idea that forces act between particles. Particles of energy have desires for the energies of space. They form structures enabling them to get, exchange and process the photon energies of space as efficiently and stably as possible. They do not want photon energies to excess which is why they hold one another at a distance and vibrate.
Vibrating actions are how particles proactively control the photon energies that pass between them. Electron and proton particles, more so the lighter electron, move toward one another to exchange and get the energy they desire but then, when the energy passing between them becomes excessive and unwanted, proton’s restrict the flow and the particles proactively move away from the hold up.
The concept of charge that history gave us may work well outside of atoms but it is just a part of the reality in which living desires reside in particles. Vibrating energy control actions also apply to the interactions between protons and neutrons. In fact vibrations are just a part of the living energy model and we will later see how electrons, protons and neutrons have different purposes in this model.
By way of increasing our understanding, consider what happens when we warm a solid structure by increasing the energy in its environment. Such action increases the photon energies being exchanged by the structure’s particles and to control the energy they move slightly further apart, as in expansion. They vibrate at a slightly higher frequency because their response to the higher exchange energy is to react quicker. Note how temperature is not the root cause of the changes. It is simply a measure of the level of photon energy being exchanged.
Absorptions and Emissions
The Bohr model for hydrogen led to a concept in which electrons could only occupy specific energy levels in atoms. Discrete incoming photon energies caused electron leaps to higher energy levels. Moves to lower levels released discrete photon energies.
Electrons that absorbed certain photon energies usually coming from an atom’s exterior, moved to locations further away from the atoms nucleus. If moving beyond the atom they were capable of a directional electric flow as in the photo electric effect. Electrons that moved to lower energy levels. emitted photons at the energy level difference.
The above picture may assist in energy calculations but it detracts from what is really going on. I suggest an electron after an encounter with a photon accelerates toward a proton releasing energy toward it and that the proton controls the energy coming its way by opposing it. Higher incoming energies result in higher speed electrons whose energy releases cause faster proton reactions that via photons despatch electrons to further out locations.
That despatch location has to be one in which electrons can best perform their role (see later in this blog.). Any move by an electron to a higher energy level leaves a more desired electron location vacant. It is quickly filled by “in house” electron that chooses to accelerate toward it. The closing proton and electron exchange photon energy so as to decelerate the electron and stabilise it in its new location. We see a photon emission
I think the above is just one aspect of electron – proton energy control. I believe that particles of energy can not only internally nullify photon light speed and create photons at light speed relative to them but that they can also exercise control over the speed of the photons approaching them.
I suggest particles want photons at light speed relative to them and that they have the ability to compress them, increasing their frequency and energy, in effect, blue shifting them. Alternatively they can draw them in, so reducing their frequency and energy and red shifting them. It is why light speed is fixed relative to our measuring apparatus but not fixed in space.
Neutron, Electron and Proton Roles
Particles are not without purpose. Neutrons, like electrons and protons have energy desires and their behaviours and actions tell us much about those desires
Science has failed to understand the reality of force and so sees the gravity force in neutron stars as delivering pressures that force protons and electrons to become neutrons. But the reality is that the neutron desires for energy in such high energy situations do not require the assistance of electrons and protons.
It is only in lesser energy density situations, like those on earth where neutrons in structures create protons and electrons to better satisfy the energy desires of their containing structures and eliminating them when they are delivering an excess of their energy needs. A neutron is far from neutral in its activities; it is a living proactive particle of energy. A free neutron doesn’t last long on earth, on average becoming a proton and high speed electron in about 15 minutes whilst within atomic nuclei it will undergo beta and beta positive decays in order to better and more stably secure its energy needs. You can read about such changes in my blog on radioactivity.
Science tells us nature devised the above mentioned interactions to change neutron to proton ratios in a nucleus to more stable ones. It is a view nearer mine which has living, proactive energy particles acting with purpose. Science however also describes such actions as the work of the weak nuclear force; weak because such nuclear changes often happen over considerable periods of time. In reality nuclear change depends on how strong the nucleon desire to secure more energy stable processing is and on the energies being delivered from the environment.
The much lighter, more mobile electrons provide the means by which nuclear particles can get their energy needs from the environment. They are the living “slave” particles of the atomic world. They locate in specific locations around atoms in which they can most efficiently collect and feed the energies of their surround to protons and hence neutrons. It is why they are found in orbitals, interacting and staying away from other electrons intent on providing the same role. The more remote outer electrons in atoms can actively also serve the energy desires of protons in other atoms, so providing structural bonds between them.
If you have understood the why and process of electron – proton production in beta radioactivity and how they are removed in beta positive radioactivity you will know that they are a team and why total protons in the universe is thought to equal total electrons. You may, if regarding protons and electrons as inactive particles ask why the quark make up of charge in a proton is equal to that of an electron but such problems go away when you consider the particles as proactive with a common purpose and with photons acting between them.
Protons have an intermediary role. As we explained when talking vibrations and energy levels, their energy desires draw in photon energies and consequently electrons whose role it is to supply their energy desires. Such drawing in rapidly leads to delivered energy exceeding that desired and the proton reaction to that is to repulse photons, compacting and mildly blue shifting them and repulsing their electron suppliers.
We may never know why neutrons want to process stable environmental energy flows but they do and they work with protons where present to exercise control over energy flows, so binding nucleons, yet holding them apart. It has similarities to the arrangement between electrons and protons.
The proton wants away from other protons that have the same energy receiving role yet forms strong links with neutrons that I repeat are far from neutral. Many nuclei seem to be built on repeat helium nuclei that are stable and very strong. Of course protons can exchange much more energy with the similarly larger neutrons than they do with electrons.
Science tells us protons and neutrons interact via strong gluon energies but how can their binding action be limited to the nucleus? Furthermore, why would the incoming photon energies, much released after processing in earthly structures, as low energy microwave photons become gluons at some intermediate stage. Does it not make more sense if the gluons are actually vast numbers of low energy photons that seriously curve to the energy desiring nucleons and so creating the strong attraction confined to the nucleus.