In 1803 John Dalton’s had the idea that matter was made from atoms. His atoms were tiny ball like particles. They were indivisible and different for each element. One hundred years later and after the discovery of the electron, atoms were seen to have negatively charged electrons scattered around a central positive charge. This atomic model became known as the plum pudding model.
Electrons were next thought to be in orbit round the atom centre like planets round the sun. Soon after in 1913 the orbits were seen as allowed electron energy levels. Electrons could only occupy such levels and moving between them involved quantised energy emissions or absorptions. The discovery of protons and neutrons only mildly changed these early atomic images. Now, over one hundred years later, I suspect most members of the public have a picture of electrons orbiting a central nucleus, even though that is not how it is.
No single image can give us a mental picture of atomic particles and their activity so I have produced a set of six videos. Even they cannot fully illustrate particle behaviours but I hope they do leave you with mental images and thoughts that convince you that atomic structures and behaviours happen because atomic particles are living energies.
Below is my introduction to the series.
Even before the discovery of the neutron and in the 1920’s, the works and mathematics of many scientists led to a quantum model with its wave functions, probabilities and uncertainties. Developments since and the use of particle colliders have given us a zoo of particle energies. The quantum world is said to explain everything except perhaps gravity. Laymen or would be scientists are either stuck with the images of the early 1900’s or have to try and understand the quantum model.
My model explains gravity. It is more intuitive; it does not tell you something happens because some law says it has to. It is not mathematical. It is simply based on the idea that atomic particle energies are alive and have a purpose. It means that what particles do is deliberate and with intent. If you have a picture of particles as purely reactive, forget it; they are highly proactive.
The next two videos try hard to show first of all the amount of space that is present in particle structures and then how energy desires and roles of particles are responsible for the building, maintaining and interactions of such structures.
With all that relative space between electron and nucleon particles is it not reasonable to conclude that light speed (300,000 kilometres per second) photon energies that science sees as passing between the particles of different structures also pass between the particles within structures.
It makes no sense to me that infra red photons bring distant warmth to our skin particles and visible light photons bring sight to our eye particles yet, inside the cellular, molecular and atomic particle structure that make for us, charge and/or virtual photons take over from photons and do their stuff. I just wonder at what stage in a chemical reaction involving the combining of two particle structures do the interacting photons get relieved of their role?
Earthly structures, including us, emit a lot of photon energies at around about 0.1 eV. and I wonder if such photon energies dominate “in structure” particle interactions. Such energies would be associated with particle vibrations of about 24 million, million cycles per second. That’s a lot faster than I could illustrate and you could see.
The following video is about proactive, living particle behaviours inside atoms and the structures they build into.
When collecting blackberries we pick best available locations. Electron orbitals in atoms. are best locations for performing their energy collection and supply role. Mild photon interactions with other electrons will cause minor relocations within their orbital space volume whilst substantial interactions with other electrons will cause electrons to move to another orbital, perhaps temporarily or even position them under the control of another atoms protons.
Photons from the environment may, like blackberries, be wanted or unwanted. Electrons position themselves to best select and collect and avoid or discard photon flows from close by or distant particle structures. All earthly structures seem to like infra red photons and the denser structures of solids absorb most light photons. I suggest they are more conducive to structural energy stability. Structures are not so keen on higher energies like x rays but may have to deal with them; they are not too fussed about radio wave photons allowing most of them to pass through walls for example.
All the above electron roles together with their prime role of providing protons with their energy desires means electrons are proactive and never still. No wonder orbitals (nothing to do with orbits) are space filling volumes around a nucleus. No wonder orbitals are limited in their locations around a nucleus. No wonder the rapid electron motions in those orbitals appear as an electron cloud.
The next three videos are all about how these living atomic particle energy desires are in evidence at our life macro level. The first of these three looks at the changes that occur in chemical reactions, in matter state changes and in nuclear reactions.
The theme in the above video is one intended to convince you that particles are not things to be pushed about. In chemical changes, in state changes and in nuclear changes they are doing what they want to do. Some of the examples involve us but all we are doing is providing the energy conditions in which the particles will do what they want to do.
The next video is about particle and particle structures that interact in our macro world, but particularly about those that deliver structural and particle motions
At our macro life level we see particle structures interacting via forces. Forces that move structures apart are the result of photon energy interactions. They happen because stable energy structures do not want other energy stable structures substantially interfering with their stability.
Whilst stable structures do not want to get too close to one another, they do attract one another, as with the gravity desire. They seem to establish and hold themselves at some distance apart that is intent on controlling the environmental energy exchanges they desire.
Though not seen we all use electrical energy flows. Voltages are photon pressures on electrons encouraging them to move and shift proton allegiances. Alternating voltage supplies that have travelled considerable distances from sub stations are continuously changing the electron pressures in our homes. When we close a switch those pressures lead to increased electron movements that are active throughout a circuit, because of light speed photon interactions, delivering energy to some light or appliance
We see and feel structures and our mind image of them is one of solid, coloured, earth bound objects. It is hard for us to realise that the earth itself is just a massive space volume with tiny interacting particles in that space. But doing so and realising that those particles have desires gives us an understanding of what gravity is, what draws our particles to the earth and the earth and our particles toward the sun.
Newton’s gravity force is still much used in calculations because it works. Newton’s law of universal gravitation has force F = G M1 M2 / d2 where G is a constant, M’ s are masses and d the distance between them. Interestingly Coulomb’s law concerning photon interactions between electron and proton charges is F = k q1 q2 / r2 where k is a constant, q’s are particle charges and r the distance between them.
The similarity is because they are both related to particle energy desires. The electromagnetic photon force is stronger because it is about the desire of particles to come together and stay together in stable structures, whereas the gravity force is the attraction that establishes the energy relationship between stable particle structures.
Many of you may think that our structures and those of other “living” creatures are different, so we will next look at what humans regard as lifeforms.
The organisms of plants and animals (including us) comprise of the particles of eukaryote cell of various types. All that we are, all that we can do, all of our complex systems including our reproduction capability, evolved over thousands of millions of years, each tiny change hardly noticed. But one thing we can be sure of is that all of those tiny changes were made by particle energies that acted to improve the energy stability and energy exchanging abilities of their parent organism in the environment they were in.
Bacteria are smaller, on their own prokaryote cells. Those, living on and hosted by a human significantly outnumber human cells. We regard bacteria as living but not viruses that can colonise and live on our cells.
Our line between living and non living is hazy and there is no standard definition. As you will have realised by now, I place life at the particle energy level.
How should we think of photons? Particle or wave? Always moving at light speed? Fixed energy or variable? Mass or no mass? Wholly absorbed and emitted by particles or interacting between them? Why are their energies, frequencies and wavelengths related? I am also aware that I make no mention of electric and magnetic fields and the associated particle spin. The objective in this video series was to put forward the living energy idea and support it and I hope I have done that. However I will follow this series with my thoughts on photons and how they interact and behave.