Attractions and repulsions, known from ancient times, were by 1750 thought to result from fluid like electrical transfers. the transfers delivered positive and negative charges. One hundred and fifty years later, and after the discovery of the electron, atoms were no longer thought of as indivisible balls. Atoms had negatively charged electrons scattered around a central positive charge. It was known as the plum pudding model.
Electrons were next thought to be in orbit round the atom centre like planets round the sun. Soon after in 1913 the orbits were seen as allowed electron energy levels. Electrons could only occupy such levels. Moving between them involved quantised energy emissions or absorptions. The discovery of protons and neutrons only mildly changed these early atomic images. Now, over one hundred years later, I suspect most members of the public have a picture of electrons orbiting a central nucleus, even though that is not how it is.
No single image can give us a picture of atomic particles and their activities so I have produced a set of videos. Even they cannot fully illustrate particle behaviours but I hope they do leave you with mental images and thoughts that convince you that atomic structures and behaviours happen because atomic particles are living energies.
Below is my introduction to the series.
Even before the discovery of the neutron and in the 1920’s, the works and mathematics of many scientists led to a quantum model with its wave functions, probabilities and uncertainties. Now physics has classical and quantum versions and the use of particle colliders have given us a zoo of particle energies. The quantum world and its probabilities are said to explain everything except perhaps gravity and nuclear radioactivity.
Laymen or would be scientists are either stuck with the images of the early 1900’s or have to try and understand the quantum model.
My atomic picture is based on the idea that atomic particle energies are alive and that what they do is deliberate and with intent. It is a simple one that also explains gravity and nuclear changes. It does not tell you something happens because some law says it has to nor is it a mathematical one intent on confirming experimental results.
We live in a world of supposed solids, liquids and gases yet the reality is that all structures are mostly space. Surprisingly, in our teaching, we do not emphasise just how much of an earthly structure is space and so my next video does just that.
Our earth is just tiny interacting particles in considerable space. Phenomenal numbers of light speed photon energies (300,000 kilometres per second) are arriving from the sun at coin sized areas of earth’s surface every millisecond. Nearly all are in the infra red and visible light ranges and much desired by earth’s particles. Particles absorb and react to such photons and release other photons.
All of earth’s particles are exchanging photons. Such energy exchanges we measure as temperature. Emitted photon energies that, over time, match earth’s absorbed energies are being released into space by earth and its structures. If this were not so the earth would get hotter. We see the emitted visible light energies and feel the infra red warmth energies that come our way.
Earthly structures, including us, absorb and emit a lot of photon energies at around about 0.125 eV. (26 degrees C) An electron absorbing and emitting such photon energies at the associated frequency of 30 million million cycles a second would be processing 3,750 MeV per milli second. That’s about 7,500 times it own energy every millisecond.
The following video is about the proactive, living particle behaviours inside atomic structures.
When collecting blackberries we pick the best of the available locations. Electrons intelligently pick best locations for performing their role. We call them orbitals. They prefer to stay in these orbitals but higher photon energies can cause them to relocate to other orbitals or out of an atom altogether. Whatever results they still want to serve protons and will quickly locate where they can do so.
Photons from the environment may, like blackberries, be wanted or unwanted. Electrons position themselves to best select and collect and avoid or discard photon flows from close by or distant particle structures. All earthly structures seem to like infra red photons and the denser structures of solids absorb most light photons. I suggest they are more conducive to structural energy stability. Structures are not so keen on higher energies like x rays but may have to deal with them; they are not too fussed about radio wave photons allowing most of them to pass through walls for example.
All the above electron roles together with their prime role of providing protons with their energy desires means electrons are proactive and never still. No wonder orbitals (nothing to do with orbits) are space filling volumes around a nucleus. No wonder orbitals are limited in their locations around a nucleus. No wonder the rapid electron motions in those orbitals appear as an electron cloud.
The next three videos are all about how living atomic particle energy desires are in evidence at our life macro level. The first of these three looks at the changes that occur in chemical reactions, in matter state changes and in nuclear reactions.
The theme in the above video is one intended to convince you that particles are not things to be pushed about. In chemical changes, in state changes and in nuclear changes they are doing what they want to do. Some of the examples involve us but all we are doing is providing the energy conditions in which the particles will do what they want to do.
The next video is about particle and particle structures that interact in our macro world, but particularly about those that deliver structural and particle motions
At our macro life level we see particle structures interacting via forces. Forces that move structures apart are the result of photon energy interactions. They happen because stable energy structures do not want other energy stable structures substantially interfering with their stability.
Whilst stable structures do not want to get too close to one another, they do attract one another, as with the gravity desire. They seem to establish and hold themselves at some distance apart that is intent on controlling the environmental energy exchanges they desire.
Though not seen we all use electrical energy flows. Voltages are photon pressures on electrons encouraging them to move and shift proton allegiances. Alternating voltage supplies that have travelled considerable distances from sub stations are continuously changing the electron pressures in our homes. When we close a switch those pressures lead to increased electron movements that are active throughout a circuit, because of light speed photon interactions, delivering energy to some light or appliance
We see and feel structures and our mind image of them is one of solid, coloured, earth bound objects. It is hard for us to realise that the earth itself is just a massive space volume with tiny interacting particles in that space. But doing so and realising that those particles have desires gives us an understanding of what gravity is, what draws our particles to the earth and the earth and our particles toward the sun.
Newton’s gravity force is still much used in calculations because it works. Newton’s law of universal gravitation has force F = G M1 M2 / d2 where G is a constant, M’ s are masses and d the distance between them. Interestingly Coulomb’s law concerning photon interactions between electron and proton charges is F = k q1 q2 / r2 where k is a constant, q’s are particle charges and r the distance between them.
The similarity is because they are both related to particle energy desires. The electromagnetic photon force is stronger because it is about the desire of particles to come together and stay together in stable structures, whereas the gravity force is the attraction that establishes the energy relationship between stable particle structures.
Many of you may think that our structures and those of other “living” creatures are different, so we will next look at what humans regard as lifeforms.
The organisms of plants and animals (including us) comprise of the particles of eukaryote cell of various types. All that we are, all that we can do, all of our complex systems including our reproduction capability, evolved over thousands of millions of years, each tiny change hardly noticed. But one thing we can be sure of is that all of those tiny changes were made by particle energies that acted to improve the energy stability and energy exchanging abilities of their parent organism in the environment they were in.
Bacteria are smaller, on their own prokaryote cells. Those, living on and hosted by a human significantly outnumber human cells. We regard bacteria as living but not viruses that can colonise and live on our cells.
Our line between living and non living is hazy and there is no standard definition. As you will have realised by now, I place life at the particle energy level.
How should we think of photons? Particle or wave? Always moving at light speed? Fixed energy or variable? Mass or no mass? Wholly absorbed and emitted by particles or interacting between them? Why are their energies, frequencies and wavelengths related? I am also aware that I make no mention of electric and magnetic fields and the associated particle spin. The objective in this video series was to put forward the living energy idea and support it and I hope I have done that. However I will follow this series with my thoughts on photons and how they interact and behave.