I remember at school drawing force diagrams. Even in dynamic situations forces balanced enabling the doing of calculations that gave the right numerical answer. A typical scenario was as per the diagram of a cyclist following a curved path. On it centrifugal force equalled centripetal force and weight was balanced by the opposing normal thrust up from the ground.
At college our mechanics lecturer asked us to draw such a diagram, showing only the forces that acted on cycle and rider. Everyone drew a diagram like that shown. At our various educational establishments we had learnt of centrifugal force and done the maths without understanding the reality. The lecturer explained that centrifugal force was fictitious, there to enable a force balance and that centripetal force was the only horizontal force; it nabled the curving motion of the cycle and rider.
I tell the above tale because mathematics can be a wonderful tool, giving us the right answer yet not be representative of reality. In this article I will question our concept of the gravity force.
Newton gave us the gravity force. Its mathematics explained space orbits and how objects accelerate toward earth at a rate independent of their mass. Einstein, subsequently giving thought to someone in free fall told us no gravity force acts on them. His general relativity mathematics of curving space-time solved a number of space motion problems, which Newton’s maths had failed to solve.
If you think the earth pulls down objects above it you are wrong. A desire for earth’s emitted photon energies resides in the individual particle energies of above earth structure. When free to do so, particles linked as structures move toward earth’s energy emissions to satisfy those desires.
Those same particle desires are why speeding space structures curve toward photon flows and why the photon flows of space curve toward attracting particle structures, as in gravitational lensing. We may not understand the maths of Einstein’s general relativity but we should now see why John Wheeler described it as “Space-time tells matter how to move; matter tells space-time how to curve” Space time being the photon energies of space.
Our sun does not hold earth in orbit. Earth particles and those in objects attracted to earth’s emissions, including our moon, desire and are attracted to the sun’s energy emissions. But the desires are not without limit; if they were the earth would spiral into the sun. In reality earth’s motion around the sun is the sum total of its individual particle moves. Each particle curves to satisfy its energy desires before returning to its location in the speeding earth going away from the sun. Particle energy desires are why the earth is in orbit.
We are wrong if we think gravity is attractive only. Particles of structures don’t want energy excesses and so they exercise control over their gravitational energy desires.
In our cyclist image above, the road structure does not want its established particle structure distorted by the energies emitted by the bike and the bike and rider structures don’ t want to be distorted by close up, excessive road emitted energies. The living, proactive particle structures value their integrity and are doing what they have to do to keep it.
Newton’s universal law of gravitation formula is F = G mM/d2.. The force F we now know to be the total desire of the particles of the photon attracting structure; it is why the mass m, related to particle numbers is present. The desire is also related to the intensity of the photon energies coming to those particles; that is why M, the mass of the emitting body features and, because photon intensity falls away as distance squared, why d2 features. G is simply a constant that makes the relationship work.
In situations where objects are above the earth and close to it G M/d2 is near constant and replaced by earth’s gravity acceleration constant g giving us F = mg. This confirms that the total desire is the sum total of particle desires and is why, if there were no atmosphere an elephant, hammer and feather would fall to earth at the same rate.
Gravity attractions are not limited to massive bodies, like the sun and earth. We regularly see raindrops clinging to window panes, more so the tiny ones. Their particles desire the energy emissions from the many close-up particles of the smooth window and ”lock in” to them. Those same raindrop particles are also aware of and desire earth energies. The bigger raindrops with particles more distant from the window pane’s emissions are the most likely to fall.
The above gravity explanations require you to accept that particles like those in the raindrops, the feather, the hammer, the bike and the earth have living, proactive desires. They, after all, comprise of the same particles that make for the cyclist, the elephant and the grass. Be clear, all particles do what they want to do rather than what they are forced to do.