We say contact forces are involved when a bat strikes a ball yet no proton, neutron or electron particles make contact. So what is really going on in such action?
The bat and ball we see are actually, like all earthly structures, less than 0.001% atomic particles of energy, more than 99.999% space yet, post strike, their photon energy exchanging particles are in much the same relative locations.
Bat and ball accelerate apart, not because they are forced to, but because their particles seek to hold onto the stable energy exchanging locations they had in the pre-strike structures. Likewise the ball’s speed of motion and the motion of the bat both occur because of a desire to maintain their particle arrangements in the close up presence of human motions
Theories involving force existed long before we knew anything about atomic particles and interestingly 1600’s debates concerning them used the term “vis viva” (living force). But force alone implies no choice and views the structures acted on as lifeless and playing no part in the interactions. Replacing force with desire recognises that particles are living and that they act, not because they have to but because they want to.
As structures move rapidly toward one another photon energies between them increase as the square of their approach velocity, Nearby structural particles respond to these now unwanted photon excesses by accelerating away and in many cases, like those above, similarly accelerating the photon linked particles of their structure.
We can’t move a large rock anchored to the earth but attempting to do so results in particles moving away from the unwanted energy exchanges and so moving particles closer together throughout their respective structures. It is a situation neither structure wants to maintain so both release thermal photon energies during the action and both return to how they were when the action ceases.
We discuss kinetic energy elsewhere but I hope you can see how wrong we are in treating it as an “on board” notion energy store. It should be clear, from the above, that changes in motion happen to avoid unwanted energies. Kinetic energy is unwanted energy.
The concept of charge, like the concept of force was in existence long before its negative and positive forms were assigned to electron and proton particles, after their discovery. It was a way of explaining the attractions and repulsions that existed between some static materials and that were evident in electrical developments.
In fact Coulomb delivered his inverse square law formula for the forces between two charged bodies some 100 years before the electron was discovered and about 100 years after Newton had given us a similarly structured formula for universal gravitation.
With better understanding of the atom came the problem of why electrons don’t crash into nuclei. The quantum answer is to say that the problem doesn’t exist because the electron is not a particle yet its probability maths explains how we are most likely to find one at the Bohr radius, at least in the simple hydrogen atom.
In my living view of our universe, neutron, proton, electron and other particles have purpose; their ever vibrating behaviours are them getting, delivering, receiving and generally controlling their desired photon flows. I see the creation or destruction of electron-proton pairs by nucleons as a further more severe energy control.
The fast moving tinier electron particles in atoms are there to serve proton and hence nucleon energy desires. It is why electrons and protons seek to come together as in the charge concept. But as they get closer to one another energies exchanged exceed those desired and the attraction becomes a repulsion. A vibrating particle control over energy is the more stable result.
Electrons don’t want other electrons interfering with their desires to serve protons and protons don’t want to compete with other energy desiring protons but are keen to provide the energy desires of neutrons.
Consider all of these desires and rejections in an atoms space volume and you will see why there are preferred locations in which electrons can best serve protons and hence nucleon energy desires.