Operators – explains complex numbers

The number parts of negative numbers and fractions are just rational whole numbers between zero and infinity. They are no different to the number parts of positive numbers. Positive, negative, multiply and divide symbols are not a part of those numbers; they are instructions that tell us how to position or deal with the number. They are operators.

Operators like plus (+) or minus (-) often convey to us a value on a scale that extends through zero from minus infinity to plus infinity. An example of this we all must encounter is with our bank account and although some will describe themselves as deeply in debt I doubt that they are anywhere near infinity on that scale.

If your account with the bank is in credit you reside on the positive side of a money scale and the bank is in possession of some of your money. If your account is in debit you have taken from the bank more than you had in it and you owe them money and your position may be viewed as on the negative side of the scale

Numbers viewed as a linear scale

We perhaps better know plus and minus operators as delivering changes in the position on the scale. When your wage or salary is paid into the bank a plus operation moves your money balance up the scale and when you make payments from your account your money balance moves in a reverse direction down that scale.  The negative operator reverses the normal positive operator. I say normal because when we are given a number on its own we take it to be a positive one.

Multiplication is a scaling operation. If you have a bank account that pays interest, and it is in credit, the bank will periodically scale your account upward. If you are in debit to the bank they will scale your debit upward and no doubt by a larger multiplying operator. When using the multiplying operator (x) I prefer to think “of”. Six of nine items is more descriptive than six multiplied by nine and when applied to fractions as with 3/8 of 2/5 you immediately see that the answer must be a fraction of 2/5.

Some find it puzzling that when multiplying two minus numbers together we get a positive number. But if we separate the operations from the numbers and multiply them separately we get a minus operation of a minus operation. As each minus operation signifies a reverse or turn through 180 degrees the result is a positive operation that acts on the result of the multiplied number values.

My granddaughter’s algebra text book teaches the FOIL (first, outer, inner, last) method for multiplying double brackets. If we apply it to some simple numbers that involve a minus of a minus, say (6 – 3)(5 -2) we get 30 -12 -15 + 6 = 9 which demonstrates that minus of minus is a plus.

Simple dividing (÷) or sharing out is best thought of as how many of this are there in that?  Dividing is like multiplication a scaling operator and can always be expressed as a multiplication. Dividing by 3 for example is the same as multiplying by 1/3 and dividing by 1/8 the same as multiplying by 8. Think about that and you see why the divide by a fraction rule of invert and multiply works.

In later school mathematics we may encounter complex numbers like 5 +4i, that comprise of a real number portion and an imaginary number portion identified using the letter i. We learn that i2 = -1 so that i = √-1. This often leads to the common sense question how can we have a square root of -1 and the answer given should be that we cannot. The reason we have this difficulty is because we treat i as an algebraic unknown (4i in our example above). That is grossly misleading because i is not an algebraic unknown, i is not a number at all; i is an operator like those we have so far encountered and as is our practice with other operators it would be better if it preceded the number (instead of writing 6i we should write i 6)

So what does the operator i do? Well it does a 90 degree anti clockwise turn off our linear scale above before applying the number. So the complex number 6 plus 3i means move 6 along a linear scale then do a turn 90 degrees anti clockwise before moving 3 as illustrated in the diagram.

We are told i2 = -1 and i = √-1 and whilst this is true it helps in understanding why this is so. Like all other operators i is meaningless if not accompanied by a number. So when we see i on its own we really mean i 1 and so i2 is i 1 x i 1. As i is a turn through 90 degrees i of i is a turn through 180 degrees and the same as the minus operator. The 1 of 1 is 1. Hence i2 = -1 We also see that √-1 is the root of the value 1 which is 1 and the root of the minus operator(-) which is i and that is why we can say i = √-1

Complex numbers along with matrices and quaternions are much used in generating computer and film graphics and in electrical engineering where alternating currents in circuits with inductors or capacitors are out of phase with voltages.  They can describe vectors and 2d translations and when used with an angular measure can describe rotations  

Numbers

Ordinal numbers are positional. Back in my school days after term exams the clever ones were positioned 1st or 2nd in class. Those near the bottom had a position like 37th. In more modern times we might find that on our 4th or 5th attempt at making a phone connection we hear an automated voice telling us we are 7th in the queue. It is the fault of ordinal numbers. But first choice isn’t always best as divorce lawyers well know.

A nominal agent

Nominal numbers are references. Find them on a footballer’s shirt, on your house door, identifying your bank account or referring to a seat location at some venue. Your home network and the whole of the world wide web use internet protocol numbers (IP addresses) to identify connected users, servers and other communicating devices. Ian Fleming’s James Bond was known via a nominal number. Clearly some nominal numbers have an order as with ordinal numbers.

Cardinal numbers are counting numbers. We have words for them like eight and symbols for them like 6 yet by themselves they are abstract and meaningless. Six is meaningless, 6 of what you ask?  Do you mean 6 apples, 6 miles, £6, 6 years, 6 kilograms, 6 atmospheres, 6 Kilowatts or 6 of something else? The list is considerable. However in pure mathematics we often manipulate cardinal numbers without knowing what they refer to.

Counting isn’t always in Decimal 10’s. It is most likely man first started counting with his fingers. Our ten based decimal system arose because our two hands comprised of ten digits.  If man had evolved with three fingers and a thumb I suggest we would have been counting in eights and 23 instead of meaning 2 lots of 10 plus 3 would mean 2 lots of eight plus 3 digits (19, in our decimal system).

Computers processors only recognise two states and so count in twos. They understand binary numbers like 10, 100, 1000, 1111 and 101101011101100 that in our ten based system equate to 2, 4, 8, 15 and 46,553.  Your device processor has a built in instruction set and receives extremely lengthy binary numbers called machine code. It recognises binary instructions that tell it to expect and how to act on following data or where to get data from. They may tell it to open a port to one of its connected devices (monitor, usb, hard drive, etc) and then send data to that device

Most computer programmers rarely see machine code. They use higher level programming languages to write programs that have set words and symbols put together in a format called syntax. When they have completed their program they submit it to a compiler (written in machine code) that is able to check the language syntax for errors. If none is found it will compile the high level language into machine code that a processor can understand. Hopefully the machine code will tell the processor to do what the programmer intended.

Those who do write machine code use a base 16 number system termed hexadecimal with symbols 1 to 9 followed by A to F (in decimal 10 to 15). Each symbol is 4 binary bits called a nibble (i.e. F is 1111) and 2 symbols together like 9B is 8 bits or a byte. The decimal number 46,553 referred to above in hex is B5D9

A hexadecimal dump of the text in the preceeding paragraph

We speak of real numbers because the history of mathematics decided there were imaginary numbers. In my next blog on operators I will seek to persuade you that there are no imaginary numbers. Real numbers can be rational or irrational. Rational real numbers include whole numbers (natural counting numbers from 1 to infinity plus zero), negative numbers, all fractions and decimals that can be derived from natural number fractions.

Irrational numbers like π, √2 or e.  are never ending with no repeat pattern. The two quadrillionth digit has been established for π and e has been established to over 500 billion digits whilst much effort has gone into proving that √2 is irrational and cannot be expressed as a fraction of two natural numbers. We have already said all fractions are rational so whilst it might appear that 0.3333 recurring is never ending it is not irrational because it can be expressed as the fraction 1/3

Rubik solution – bottoms up

This method of solving professor Rubik’s cube completes the cube in layers starting from the bottom. To assist in solving the rubik cube we provide diagrams that show how blocks will move when a certain sequence of face turns is performed.

The key diagram identifies for any one move sequence a front face and thereby a left, right, bottom, top and back faces. The key diagram and the move sequences below show the blue face as the front face but any colour face can be the front face for the duration of a move sequence.

In performing the moves hold the cube as in the diagram with the front right edge facing you. The key diagram also shows how lower case letters call for anti-clockwise rotations of faces and capital letters call for clockwise rotations of those faces.

The stages in completing the cube from bottom up are as follows:-
1. The four bottom face edge blocks are put in position.
2. The four bottom corner blocks are put in position.
3. The four side edge blocks are put in position.
4. The four top edge blocks are put in position.
5. The four top corner blocks are put in position.

Stage 1 – Pick a colour that is going to be your bottom face. I usually choose white. It will be the bottom face throughout the cube solution. I provide no help diagram for this stage but give two pieces of advice. Aim to get a bottom edge block on the top level above its “home” position and with a matching side face colour. A 180 degree face turn will finalise that block. The second piece of advice is that if at any stage you have to turn a side face that has a bottom block correctly positioned make sure to put that block back in position as soon as you can.

Stage 2 – Look for bottom corner blocks at the top level that have the cube bottom face colour on one of the cube side faces. Rotate the cube so that the lower front corner is the “home” position for this block. One of the two moves illustrated below, will transport and finalise your selected block in its “home” position bottom front. Position your selected block ( by rotating the top face ) and perform the chosen move sequence.

Stage 2 move sequences

When there are no such blocks that meet the above criteria look for blocks at top level that have bottom face colours pointing skyward. Rotate the cube so that the “home” position for that block is bottom front, then rotate the top face to position the selected block above its home position. Now turn either the front cube face anti-clockwise or right face clockwise so that this block has its bottom face colour on the cube side of the top layer. Note that this rotation disturbs already finalized bottom layer blocks so turn the top layer to position this block at the top rear before reversing the side face rotation you made. Now you can proceed as in the previous paragraph.

If you have to move a corner block from the bottom layer to the top layer for further treatment then position such a block at the bottom front and do either of the above moves

Stage 3 – Find a middle layer edge block on the top face. Rotate the cube as a whole so that the vertical edge facing you is the “home” position for the selected block. Select from the moves illustrated below the one that will deliver the desired result. Rotate the cube top face to appropriately position the selected edge block and do the chosen move. Repeat this process as necessary for other vertical edge blocks.

Stage 3 move sequences

If at some stage you need to move a middle layer edge block to the top face simply rotate the cube so the block is at the font facing edge and do either move.

Stage 4 – First rotate any top edge blocks that do not have their top colour face uppermost. If four blocks need rotation perform either of the block flipping move sequences illustrated below so that you are left with two to rotate. Then do the move sequence that rotates that pair. When completed all top face edge block colours match the top face colour creating a colour cross.

Stage 4 move sequences

Now rotate the top face to see the alignment you have between those top face edge blocks and the cubes coloured side faces. You may be lucky and have full alignment in which case proceed to the next stage. More likely is you can align two faces and need to swap the position of the other two or you have been unlucky and cannot align a pair.  The edge re position sequence illustrated above should secure alignment. Perform it twice if need be.

Stage 5 – With the edge blocks aligned look for corner blocks correctly located (but probably in need of rotation). If all corner blocks are correctly located then proceed as per the next paragraph. If one is correctly located then choose from the two move sequences illustrated below the one that delivers the desired result. If neither of the above apply choose from the two move sequences so as to deliver one correctly located block and then the sequence that will correctly locate the other three.

Stage 5 move sequences – Locating corner blocks

Now we have correctly located our top corner blocks some of them will need rotating. Two rotation moves are provided, one clockwise and one anticlockwise. Do not now rotate the cube – hold it in the same position until all corners have been completed following the instructions below.


Stage 5 move sequences – Rotating corner blocks

Pick a top corner block in need of rotation and rotate the top face of the cube to bring that block to the top front position. Select and perform the clockwise or anticlockwise rotation move illustrated above to rotate and finalise that block.

Having done the above move the cube will appear messed up but don’t rotate the cube. Simply keep repeating the process in the above paragraph until all corner blocks are finalised and the cube is finalised

8. Seeing the light

When scientists speak of light they don’t just mean the light we see; they are referring to the range of photon energy packets that constitute the electro- magnetic spectrum as below.  These wide ranging photon energy packets have associated frequencies and wavelengths as in the diagram. You might think this strange and wonder at why frequency and energy are linked so I will try to explain why this is so.

Particles are pro active energy nodes with a desire to link to other particles by exchanging photon energies. They absorb, process and emit photon energies and it makes sense that the speed at which they absorb and emit photon energies is common to them all. This speed is the speed of light (186,000 miles per second). In an uninfluenced space vacuum emitted photons would travel in straight lines at this speed but space isn’t particle free and photons passing through it are influenced by the desires of particles. But particles, as we have seen in our gravity and kinetic energy deliberations have movements linked to photon energies.

Being proactive, particles use their “on board” energies to achieve desired motions. Within structures gravity style energy desires cause particles to move closer together only for kinetic energy issues to push them apart. It is how particles regulate their energy intakes and why particles all vibrate.

Each gravity attraction photon pulse results in an opposite direction kinetic energy photon thrust away. These two pulses issued at light speed constitute a wave. Any increase in photon energy input results in higher energy exchanges producing higher vibrating frequencies and higher photon energy pulse emissions. At high frequencies the photon pulses are short lived and particle like whereas at low frequencies they are more spread out and wave like.

As particle energies and their photon exchange energies vary continuously a structure’s mass energy must also vary. It is the case that all energy forms interact and influence other energy forms. When we discussed forces and magnetism we saw how photon energies interacted with photon energies. So the concept of photon energies being fixed is like the concept of mass energies and particle energies being fixed, incorrect.

A small range of photon energies and frequencies in the above diagram are the visible light energies we are able to see. Of all the radiations it has understandable been most studied. Science talks of it as being coherent or incoherent, refers to it as having undergone reflection, refraction or diffraction, describes it as producing interference patterns and producing electrical energy flows as in the photo electric effect. I will try to explain some of these things in terms of visible light but much of what I say will apply to the whole of the electro magnetic radiation spectrum.

Coherent Light: When like energy photons are dispatched as regular pulses from close structure particles they energy link together. They exchange tiny energies before setting off on one of many space directions. We describe such point source light as cohered. The photons of visible light that come to our eyes from distant points in view are cohered. The low energy photon pulses from a high voltage radio transmitter are cohered. As cohered light travels into space its photons occupy more space and they becomes less intense.

Spatial coherence is about the sideways energy interactions between in step photons. Temporal (time) coherence is about the interactions between photons that are not in step but following on as pulses. We saw in magnetic photon flows how pulsed photons linked to and followed one another. Incoherent light is to do with more random photon emissions as happened with our tungsten light bulb. However no light is entirely incoherent as all close photon energies interact.

We might think of cohered photons as linked together by energy exchanges in wave fronts created by the pulsed emissions of the source. The rate at which the wave fronts pass a point in space is the frequency of the photon pulses as set by the source particle vibrations and their light speed determines the wavelength or distance apart the wave fronts are.

Why is it that visible light passing through glass does so at what seems a delayed speed? The rigid particle structure of glass is such that its electrons are held quite firmly in place. They make only limited moves to intercept the photons and so absorb only a small percentage of them. The visible light photons are quite strong and hold onto one another in cohering fashion but the electrons still exert a pull on them and so they have a wigging motion through the glass which is why their speed seems slowed.

Refraction: In the case of refraction imagine a wave front of spatially cohered photons approaching an air to glass surface and at an angle to that surface. Some cohered photons enter the glass whilst others are still in the air. Glass electrons attract those in the glass slowing them but they are coherence linked to photons still in the air not yet slowed. A curving motion is the result. It’s like a slowing me hanging on to you as you start to overtake me. We stay connected but curve.

Once all the photons in the cohered wavefront bundle are in the glass they have a new and like direction and the wave front wiggles more than it did in the air due to increased particle attractions. Now our photon bundles come to the glass to air surface and it is as if I start speeding up before you but you cling on to me so we curve the other way. Refraction is about the behaviour of cohering photons under the changing influence of particle structures.  

White light passed through a refracting prism breaks up into colours. Clearly violet light bends more than red light. That is because violet light is of higher energy and its cohering energy is much stronger than that of red light. With violet light the slowing me pulls more strongly on the overtaking you so we curve more rapidly and quickly re-cohere. In the case of red light I pull less firmly on you so we curve less severely.

The angle at which the light leaves the glass and re- enters the air is not as it was for refraction. The photons of light no longer have the opportunity to cohere back together into what we saw as white light when they passed through parallel air to glass and glass to air surfaces. Now, the different colours of visible light bend further apart so that we see them as rainbow colours. 

Light through slits and interference: Young’s double slit experiment of 1801 convinced many scientists that light was not corpuscular as described by Newton, but had a wave nature. It showed that a single frequency of light passing through two close slits diffracted and produced a wave like interference pattern. But, why does light diffract (bend) on passing through a tiny slit or on encountering a structure edge?

It is because structure particles attract photons, more so those nearest them. The battles for photons between the structure particle pulls and cohering pulls break the bundles up into smaller cohered bundles. Dark parts of the output pattern are where very few photons land. As with all light diagrams, think zillions of photons.  When there are two slits, the cohered photon wave front photons from one slit cross the paths of cohered wave front photons from the other slit. On a screen they either support or oppose one another.

To secure an interference pattern we might send single energy cohered light round two different routes and rejoin them. In such circumstance the light is temporally out of step and tries to cohere. Interference patterns like the three shown above result. They show how the more powerful energy exchanges of violet light create more closely cohered energy bundles than the lesser cohering energy exchanges of green and red. 

Reflection: Electrons will collect and dispatch unwanted energies Rough structures emit photons in many directions whilst smooth structures emit lots of photons in the same direction, behaving like an invisible trampoline. 

When the angle of reflection of the emitted photons is the same as the angle of incidence of the absorbed photons the photon path lengths are near the same and the photons most easily cohere. Our eyes have evolved to respond to cohered light photons. There may be many non cohered photons coming to our eyes along different paths but we do not see them. They don’t work together and so provide no clear image.

How electrons respond to photons: Within and between structures gravity style energy desires draw particles together only for kinetic interacting energies to push them apart. Such exchanges are happening between all of the “in structure” particles so it is no wonder that the mobile electrons within a structure have little choice but to occupy and be active in specific locations within a structure. When such desired locations are vacated they are termed holes.

The absorption and emission frequencies of the much studied hydrogen are shown above. They have led many to wrongly believe that photons in general cannot be absorbed unless their energy input exactly matches that needed to move an electron from one desired location in an atomic structure to another. But I suggest not even light mass energy electron set in motion by low energy photon desires and thrusts can precisely land in a “hole” that is a vibrating location anyway. Most will overshoot, return and dampen down into that location. All these activities photon energies.

Electrons in the separated molecules of gas, as in our atmosphere, can be highly selective of the energies they absorb. Electrons can use their energies to move away from non desired frequencies taking energy linked nuclear particles with them. It is why a lot of sun energy reaches earth. The electrons in the more compact structures that are earth’s solids similarly desire photon frequency pulses which are compatible with their “on board” particle swings and with which they can resonate. However they have little choice but to deal with all photon energies.

The diagram above shows how for solid conductors and insulators the possible electron energy locations are more spread and in bands. It means the internal thrust emission that reacts to an external absorption so as to re-position an electron and any subsequent emission to satisfy its energy desire for a better location are more diverse.

But what happens with energy absorptions made that are greater than that needed for a re-positioning. I suggest the excess is stored as electron mass energy and is dispersed into the particle structure as lower thermal energies.

In insulators electron attractions to nuclear protons are strong. In conductors outer electrons are not strongly attached to any single nucleus and so the photoelectric effect is more noticeable in conductors. If an absorbed energy is high enough the subsequent acceleration away from the nucleus will move an electron into the conduction band with excess mass energy. The movement away is all the while opposed by the gravity style energy desires. That electrons attraction to the nucleus is to photon flows from the nucleus that aren’t being taken up by other electrons. The electron senses this “hole” in the structure and emits energy appropriate to a move from conduction band to “hole”.

How do we use the above to create an electrical flow? The many visible light photons falling on a metal structure result in billions of electrons being released from and returning to that structure. As we know electrons desire their own space and exchange energies to that end, so each conduction band electron has an effect on others giving them random motions at the structure surface. Now if instead of using a metal we use a semi conductor material that conducts well in one direction the random motions have no option but to become directional motions. We have a current flow created by visible light photons.

As with all my articles I hope the above has set you thinking.

7. Magic of magnetism

In my article on electricity we saw how an electric current comprised of numerous electrons in motion created by photon energy exchanges between them. We learnt that a one amp current is 6.25 billion, billion outer electron movements passing a wire location every single second. We learnt electron progress was slow because such a vast number of outer electrons is present in a tiny fraction of a millimeter length of wire. That wasn’t the whole story because here we learn that atomic particles have a spin property that is responsible for magnetism.

Quantum physics says this spin property should not be regarded as real spin. It does so because the observed angular momentum is far greater than that possible from a spinning ball like particle. Now we know proton and neutron particles are composed of energy fragments and every indication is that an electron is similarly so. This being the case the observed spin could be the sum total of energy fragment spins just as planetary spins are the sum of particle spins.

Within an atom many electrons are paired and have opposite motions. Their spin energies cancel one another. Random motions of unpaired outer electrons similarly cancel out spin energies. However when many outer unpaired electrons have motions in the same direction, as happens in an electric current flow, their spin energies support one another and a magnetic field is observed.

The diagram shows the direction of the circular magnetic energy field around a current carrying wire. Its direction is shown by the curl of your fingers when your right thumb points in the direction of current flow (opposite to electron movements). So what is this magnetic field?

It is one of low energy photons spun outward by the numerous same direction spins of the same direction movements of electrons in the wire. Being of low energy these photons are attracted back to join the linear flows of photons absorbed by the moving electrons. To put it another way, the magnetic fields around current carrying wires are high volumes of photon energies that spiral outward from moving electron particles as part of their emissions and then inward to be absorbed by other moving electron particles. We see this energy field as circular and diminishing with distance from the wire. Essentially you should realise that these magnetic photon flows are a part of the photon exchanges between electrons.

Let us consider several outer electrons with motions into the paper ( a miniscule current toward us) as in the diagram. Around the moving electrons we show just a tiny few of the vast numbers of paths that low energy spin photons take.  Between the electrons many photon conflicts occur because of their opposite directions. The conflicts cause changed photon paths; some now curve rapidly inward and are absorbed by electrons whilst others take longer routes round multiple electrons before being similarly absorbed. I hope you can see that even in this simple electron scene that photons are spending longer times in the surround space.

Now consider a current of one amp flowing in a wire. Some 6.25 billion, billion electrons per second are now moving in the same direction and sending out like directional spin photons. There are now considerably more conflicts and the photon flow paths from source electron to destination electron are much extended so that we observe a magnetic field around the wire.

When an increasing voltage tries to increase the numbers of electrons in motion some of the increased photon energies received by electrons are dispatched as increased spin photons and go to expand the magnetic energy field. Consequently the rise in current lags behind the rise in voltage. The effect is called inductance, in this case self inductance, and science sees it as a temporary electromotive force (voltage) induced in the wire that opposes the current rise.

When a decreasing voltage is intent on decreasing an electric current, the reduced electron photon interactions means the magnetic field contracts. Spin photons take shorter paths and the reducing magnetic field energy is intent on sustaining the linear electron motions. Consequently the fall in current lags behind the fall in voltage. Science sees this as an induced electromotive force (voltage ) that acts to try and sustain the current.

Unlike a close wound coil (solenoid) the single wires we have been talking about have low inductance. When a current flows in a coil the photon energies round each wire now conflict with those in wires next to them and billions of them take paths like the example paths shown in the green cross section. The magnetic energy fields of coils are now much more substantial.

When a coil supply voltage collapses the collapsing magnetic field can deliver induced voltage (photon pressures) considerably higher than those of the collapsed supply voltage source. The photon pressures can cause electrons to jump air gaps as happens with car engine spark plugs. If it cannot escape as a current flow the field energies may slowly dissipate as photons of thermal heat away from the coil.

We may wonder why the magnetic field coil photons do not go hurtling off into space away from the coil. Well I suspect some do but are replaced by others drawn from space. The majority follow one another in flows because photon energies interact with one another.  Photon energies like particle mass energies have not got absolutely fixed energies and interact with other photons. They will cohere in a wave front but also take a path of least energy expenditure which means they move into a photon vacated space. If there are structures in their path they may divert round it but if like iron they are supportive of their flow they will pass through it. Iron is much used to support and direct magnetic photon flow paths.

Magnetic materials like iron have soft flexible particle structures and do not make good magnets. Their grain structures can turn so that their outer electrons near align and act in a supportive way when in the presence of an external magnetic field. Magnetic photon energies like to interact with iron structures and the particles of iron are attracted to the photon flows of magnetic fields. Magnetic photons are low energy, highly curving photons that nuclear particles desire and are therefore highly sought of by electrons.

Iron is much used in transformers and electrical machines to extend and direct magnetic energy paths. Iron has no difficulty repetitively changing its structure when subjected to alternating magnetic fields. You might wonder at why iron is a good magnetic material whilst copper and aluminium are poor magnetic materials. The reason is that iron atoms holds onto their outer electrons about 6 times more strongly than copper atoms do. Whilst copper and aluminium electrons subjected to photon pressures move from atom to atom, iron electrons remain with their parent atoms but relocate and align to suit the external photon pressures.

Permanent magnets are not like magnetic materials. They have hard inflexible structures. Their electron structures have been pre-aligned by high magnetic fields in their manufacturing process.  They consequently exchange linear photons that have a permanent directional flow. Only softening by heat is likely to destroy their magnetism.

We describe permanent magnets as having a north and a south pole but in reality there are north and south poles throughout the magnet because they are particle related.  We can cut a magnet many times across its length to make many magnets. 

The unlike poles of magnets attract because south poles desire the energies north poles have. When two north energy emitting poles come together their photons conflict and they veer apart. When two energy desiring south poles come close together they veer apart because they each seek photons and there are few photon energies between them. 

We will all have seen how substantial the forces of attraction and repulsion are. They are the the result of their particle desires for photon energies and such desires can be extremely strong. High forces do not mean high energy. As with the coil above a permanent magnet’s surround photon energies are not all circulating. Like any structure a magnet is absorbing energies from other sources and releasing energies to other sources. A magnet is not a mass energy store like a battery or a spring.

If you still need convincing that photon energies interact like particle energies do let us look at what happens when we have an electrical flow in a magnetic field as happens with electrical machines.

In the diagram the electrical wire flow into the page is producing a circulating photon magnetic field and the permanent magnets are producing linear photon flows. The photon conflicts on the left of the wire encourage the magnetic field photons to flow on the right of the wire.

The photons on the right of the wire are now compressed and want more space so they energy interact with other photons to get that space and that is what causes the force on the wire and its motion.

Next time you have a magnet to play with try the following. Suspend the magnet on a piece of card between say two beakers. Invert say a cup,egg cup or plastic container and position it beneath the magnet and try balancing two 5p coins on top of one another. You may have to put packing under the beakers or cup to get it right but you will succeed and if you now blow at the coins through a straw they will spin one on top of the other.

Another bit of fun you can have is because the royal mint started making copper coated steel pennies in 1992. Unlike earlier pennies they respond to magnets. Give your friend a non magnetic penny and invite him/her to move it using a magnet under a table like you have done with a magnetic penny. Tell them they can’t be holding the magnet right.

6. How electricity works

I have described electrons as energy collectors that work with protons to deliver nuclear particle energy desires. It is why electron and proton numbers are about the same in structures. To effectively perform their role electrons seek their own energy gathering space and keep at a distance from other electrons by exchanging energies with them. Outer electrons of atomic structures can be energy linked to the protons of more than one atom and as such are responsible for the covalent, ionic and metallic bonds that make for extended structures.     

In metallic bonding outer electrons of atoms repetitively move their energy links to protons of different atoms. I think such wandering electrons, often referred to as an electron gas, are a metallic structures repeated attempts at finding a more efficient energy arrangement. It takes very little energy to encourage an outer electron to shift its energy link to another atom nucleus. I often see these electrons described as free. In no way are they free. Their shifting energy links to protons are very strong and give a metal structure its considerable strength.

Silver, copper, gold and aluminium are described as good conductors because their outer electrons can be most easily encouraged to move between atoms. A good conductor may also be described as having low resistance because there is little resistance to the movement of their outer electrons from atom to atom. We said above that electrons like their own space away from other electrons and they maintain such space by exchanging photon energies. It is why one electron motion will trigger other electron motions.

If we create an electron surplus at one end of a piece of wire (the negative battery terminal in our diagram) the electrons seek space and push into the wire increasing the electron density in it. They do so between that terminal and the switch. The electrons cannot break free of the wire as the surround air does not want them and the switch will not allow their further movement along the wire as air is a high resistor.

If we create a deficit of electrons at the battery positive terminal wire electrons are encouraged to move and link to the surplus protons there. The spaces electrons move into are often described as holes. Electrons in the wire between the positive terminal and the switch are spread more thinly than they were.

Close the switch in the above circuit and the more dense electrons on the negative side of the switch are able to move and better satisfy the energy demanding proton surpluses on the positive side of the switch. The circuit enables electron motions as delivered by their photon energy exchanges throughout the whole of the circuit. Protons link to electrons to get their photon energy needs. In our completed circuit protons have a better than normal energy supply because of the surplus electrons provided by the supply battery voltage. Protons willingly release electrons because another electron is already involved in meeting its energy needs.  

Be clear, electrons do not move at high speed. They may move rapidly between atoms but their progress along a circuit wire is slow. When we close a switch light speed photon energy interactions between electrons deliver almost instantaneous electron motions throughout the circuit. That is why our light comes on so quickly.

Electrical current is measured in amps. One amp equates to 6.25 billion, billion electron movements past a wire location every single second. That is a lot of electrons in motion but it is only about the number of outer electrons in one tenth of a millimetre of a suitable diameter wire. It means an electron’s progress along a wire in such circumstances is as low as one half of a metre every hour. Tortoises move faster than that.

Tungsten particle structures in the light bulb filament of our circuit do not easily give up their outer electrons. Tungsten has a higher resistance because its protons hold onto their outer electrons more strongly than copper protons do. Moving tungsten outer electrons between atoms requires the photon energy interactions of many approaching copper electrons followed by the energy desires of many protons short of electrons. Electron pushes are always more effective than proton energy desires. This difference between the photon pressures approaching electrons apply on one another and the photon flows to energy desiring protons that encourage electrons into suitable surround “holes” is a feature much evident in the “p” and “n” materials of semi conductor technology.

The photon energy exchanges between many approaching copper electrons and single tungsten electrons are what we call kinetic energy. They set tungsten electrons in motion and may temporarily add to their mass as they accelerate them away (no motion energy store). They are not free and the energy desires of protons and their desire to serve protons means their motions are quickly slowed and they accelerate toward some point of desire in the tungsten structure. The particles now pro actively use their mass energies to slow this motion. These slowing kinetic energy exchanges are what we see as the photons of visible light and infra red heat emitted by a tungsten light bulb. The tungsten electron having found a new home will for a short while engage in more normal energy exchanges with its new parent protons before once more being pressured by copper electron approaches.

If we look at the bulb we can see such photon radiations coming from it. Such visible light photons reach many surround objects that absorb them. They then emit other photon energies that we see as the colour and shape of those objects. Many of the infra red heat photons emitted are absorbed by other particles of the tungsten element. These higher than normal photon energy exchanges cause the tungsten to get very hot. To stop the tungsten burning we exclude oxygen by encasing it in a glass vacuum.

Copper outer electrons pressured into moving in an electrical circuit also release interacting kinetic energy when they re-engage with atoms. Such energy releases are small and almost unnoticeable by comparison with the tungsten kinetic energy releases but they still warm the wire. It might seem that the surround air remains uninfluenced by the energy changes in the wire but that is not so. Air electrons move within their structures in response to the wire electrons but they are not removed from those structure. Air is not a good conductor and only in situations like lightning strikes will air part with electrons.

Voltage in an electrical circuit is a measure of the photon pressures that cause electron motions. We will in a later blog on chemical energy look at how a battery works. The electron mass energy movements created by voltage happen in mobile phone circuits, in car circuits and in the wired circuits that bring electrical energy to our homes and their appliances from power stations hundreds of miles away. It doesn’t matter whether electrons have a directional movement or a to and fro movement, as for our mains alternating voltage supplies. They still instigate energy interactions in our appliances.

Electrical energy in our homes we measure in kilowatt hours. It is 3,600,000 joules of energy. Joules of electrical energy we calculate by multiplying volts by amps by time in seconds (remember amps is 6.25 billion billion electrons passing a wire section every second). These electrical units have been chosen so that one joule of electrical energy is the same as the joule of mechanical energy that is one Newton of force acting through a metre.

There are many electrical devices and so it might seem strange that I now choose to show how a capacitor works. I do so because a capacitor illustrate how energy can be stored in a structure, but also because capacitor energy stores are much more common than you might realise.  The mobile phone you hold to your ear may have more than 500 tiny capacitors in it and your television or camera would not work without them.

Capacitors comprise of two metal plates with an insulating material between them called a dielectric. They are often cylindrical in shape as the plates are coiled up to save space. Connect a battery energy source to a capacitor and a short duration decreasing current flows that creates high levels of electron shortages at the positive plate and high numbers of extra electrons at the negative plate. Electrons do not move between the plates but their photon energy exchanges act linearly across the plates and influence the dielectric insulating material.

That dielectric material does not part with its electrons but its particle structures are distorted by the photon pressures. The dielectric is said to be polarised and there is much more energy being exchanged by its particles.  The particles are being held in a more agitated energy storing state. They have more mass energy in excess and they would like to revert to a lesser energy state. Disconnecting the battery from the capacitor does not change the situation as the stored energy has nowhere to go but connect a circuit to that capacitor and it takes its opportunity to release the added mass energy stored in its pate and dielectric particles and in the photon energy exchanges between them as a circuit energy flow. The mass energy store capability of capacitors is much used in alternating voltage situations to smooth out energy flows.

It is opportune here to consider what voltage is. It is a measure of the pressure on photons to move between two points. Such pressure is transmitted along a circuit by photon energy exchanging electrons and resisted by proton energy holds on those electrons. A voltmeter actually measures the effectiveness of the voltage push by responding to the rate of the electron flow between those points (current) through a very high known resistance.

The energies of gravity and the kinetic energies of force interactions are, like the energies in electrical flows, all about photon interactions. However they are different because whilst one is to do with the energy desires of structures in which neutrons, protons and electrons all have separate roles, the other is mainly about the desires of mobile electrons to keep at a distance from one another. We are able to equate such energies because we have chosen units that equate them.

5. Energy – potential & kinetic

In my earlier blogs I have tried to persuade you that everything in this universe of ours is either space or energy. The concept of energy took a leap forward in science a few hundred years ago when scientists were trying to explain the association between a body’s loss of speed and its friction heat release. The heat released was found to be proportional to the mass of the object and to its lost velocity squared. It gave rise to the idea that a body in motion has an energy store that it gives up as the body slows down. That energy store was regarded as given to the body by the energy that set it in motion.

I think my first learning about energy was at school about 65 years ago when I learnt of potential and kinetic energy and how they could be equated.  It seemed the energy of an object was either related to its height above the ground, and called potential energy, or related to its speed of motion and called kinetic energy. My calculations of equating the two were good but my understanding poor.  

When helping my granddaughter prepare for GCSE I found her course book saying “anything moving has energy in its kinetic energy store” and describing a gravitational potential energy store as “anything that has mass and is in a gravitational field”.  I then found a Faraday Lecturer and numerous science articles all saying much the same thing. It seems it is an accepted view that body’s in motion have an energy store.

Is science right in its thinking that structures have energy stores related to their speed of motion and to their height in a gravity field?

Does it make sense that a book on the top shelf (or at top shelf level) has more energy than the same book when on a bottom shelf? When we are running do we really believe our body cells and their particles have some energy store that they don’t have when we are stood still? Truth is objects don’t have either a potential energy store or a motion energy store. Our calculations may work but our energy model is badly wrong.

The energy thrusts between a car engine’s pistons and its cylinder head are delivered by the burning of fuel in its cylinders. Every bit of the energy released from the fuel is accounted for as in the diagram. The drive energy part that keeps the car moving is needed only because the road and the air offer resistance to motion. The tyres and road and the air and car are warmed by the energy exchanges they engage in.  Nowhere on our diagram do we see a car motion or kinetic energy store. If we want to slow the car rapidly we provide an energy interaction (the brakes) to reduce the car’s speed.

Kinetic energy is the interacting energy between structures that causes a change in their relative motions, slowing their approach or speeding up their departure. It is not a speed related energy store!!

At school we learn to calculate kinetic energy using 1/2 mv2. On the right I show how that is derived and you will see it is the energy to steadily accelerate an object of mass m from rest up to a speed of v. The maths confirms what I have typed in bold above – that kinetic energy is the energy that accelerates or decelerates an object, not an energy store.

A firework rocket thrust upward from the earth gains motion relative to the earth. In lighting the rocket touch paper we have input some energy that disturbs its structure giving its particle contents the opportunity to move to a more energy efficient arrangement and releasing mass energy in the form of photons. Some of that photon thrust energy goes into the rocket compressing its particles, adding to their agitation and increasing its internal energy (it gets hot). When the rocket thrust ceases that compression mass energy is soon released to the air as the rocket particles settle in energy. There is no motion energy.

The rocket’s particles are seeking and absorbing energy from their surround; it is what particles do. They are aware of and desire the photon energies emitted by earth’s particles. That gravity desire acts to decelerate them. If at a certain speed all noticeable influences including gravity desire could be switched off the rocket would remain at that speed and its particle positions and mass energy content would be the same as at rest on the earth. However, nothing in our universe is uninfluenced.  

However the rocket particle desires for earth’s photon energy emissions are not switched off and they act to slow the rocket and return it to the earth. The height any object reaches above the earth is related to the energy that set its particle structure in motion and the opposing particle desires for earth energy. It is why we are able to equate the supposed potential energy of object height to the supposed energy of motion but neither are true forms of energy.

If a car hits a tree at 5 miles per hour the interacting energy that brings it to a halt in the earth environment is related to 5 squared = 25. If our 5 m.p.h. car collides head on with a 95 m.p.h. train the energy that brings it to a halt in the train environment is related to 100 squared = 10,000. The car doesn’t suddenly have a kinetic energy store 400 times as big because it is encountering the train.

A thermometer placed in a gas is said to measure the average kinetic energy of its molecules but it isn’t. Yes, there is more energy within the molecules of a gas, it is a part of the very nature of being a gas but the thermometer is not measuring such energy because it cannot enter the gas molecules. The thermometer is measuring the interacting photon energies between the molecules which are a part of the energy accommodating state of matter that is a gas.

The theory of relativity and the energies of particles as calculated in the Large Hadron Collider experiments view kinetic energy as a motion energy store but are wrong to do so. The associated mathematics works but the concept is wrong and leads to differences of opinions on what mass is as I will try to explain.

Applying the 1/2 mv2 calculation to known energy exchanges in high speed collisions resulted in velocities in excess of light speed. Something was wrong and 1/2mv2 was only useful deriving the energies involved when object speeds were less than half light speed.

Kinetic energy became ( ϒ -1) mc2 with ϒ, the Lorenz factor and equal to 1/ sq rt (1- v2/c2). It meant energy rises toward infinity as the relative particle speed v approached that of light speed c. Such massive particle energy increases begged the question where is all this energy stored and two schools of thought arose. One decided E = mc2 was only relevant to bodies at rest, that photons had no mass and that the speed energies were extra energies the body had effective in delivering momentum but not a part of mass. The second school of thought assigned mass to photons, and saw energy and mass as always being the same. Total rest energy and kinetic energy could be equated to mass using E = ϒ mc2. ϒm was termed relativistic mass and accounted for the rest energy and motion energy.

My view is that the mass of a structure may vary but it always has an equivalent energy because structure mass energy is the total of its particle mass energies plus the photon mass energies being exchanged by those particles. There is no motion energy. We have wrongly come to think that because energy is involved in changing motion that there is an energy associated with that motion. When structures are being accelerated or decelerated by photon pressures their particles will be pushed closer together and their mass energies will increase but when these interactive photon pressures are removed that mass energy is lost. The energy and mass of an unhindered steady state speed structure are the same as those of a like unhindered rest structure.

Newton saw that like forces make like changes to structure motions irrespective of whether a structure is in a state of rest or state of uniform motion. Einstein argued in special relativity that the physical laws of nature are the same in every inertial frame of reference. By inertial frame of reference he was referring to states of rest or of uniform motion. It would seem to me that both these statements support the idea that the particle arrangements and energy contents of structures at steady speeds are no different to those regarded as being at rest.

It makes sense that we can never push objects to light speed relative to a pushing source because the push from that source is light speed photons. It does not make sense that the energy of an object changes according to its speed relative to an observer. A pushed object may take on added mass due to the push but it does not have a motion energy store.

I hope I have convinced you there is no kinetic energy of motion store and that we should stop teaching children that there is. I wonder if there are any scientists who will accept that this is a serious flaw in science thinking.

4. Force and gravity

I have described particles as energy machines that collect and process the photon energies of space. I have said that photon energies pass between the particles of structures as well as between those of different structures.  I have described contact as energy exchanges and said that the mass or inertia of a structure is all about its energy content.

Science refers to the energy that keeps particles together in structures as binding energy. I find this confusing because it leads you to think that additional energy is required to bind particles together. But they know and you who have read my blog “what’s the matter” know that structures come together to be energy efficient. Binding energy is that released when particles form more energy efficient structures. It is also the energy that has to be input to break apart such structures.

We are an energy efficient structure. A car is an energy efficient structure. When we push a car there is no energy saving to be had and the two structures resist a coming together by the exchanging of photon energies. Particles in the two structures do what particles do when situations arise that they don’t want. They use their energies to recoil away from one another and by so doing put pressure on other particles within their structures to also move away. When our energy push is strong enough the photon exchanges cause the photon energy linked car particles to move as a whole. The car particles are mildly and unnoticeable pushed closer together and are exchanging slightly higher energies. It is a minuscule increase in the car’s mass energy that is being released as thermal heat photons and fully released when we no longer push the car.

Newton related force to mass and accelerating motion in one of his three laws. Expressed mathematically F = m x a means that to deliver an acceleration (a) to an object of mass (m) so as to move it from a state of rest or uniform motion we have to apply a force F. But what is a force if not the result of the photon energy exchanges between two separate particle structures and what are “in structure” stress forces if not the photon energy exchanges between in structure particles.  

Motion produced by the interacting force, reduces the force. There is no such thing as a fixed force or steady motion. They are like everything else vibrating changing energy interactions. To try and maintain our contact force with the car as it moves we have to move with it and we expend energy accelerating ourselves as well as accelerating the car. We calculate energy by multiplying force by distance but, as force is never steady and multi directional, energy is more correctly calculated as the total of each almost instantaneous force multiplied by the small changes in distance it contributes.

We say we do no work pushing a wall. because it does not move. But we all know we can use just as much energy pushing a wall as we do pushing a car. We saw when looking at human energy how our muscles contract in response to brain desires. In pushing a wall we use numerous muscles to try to extend our legs, arms and body. The particle cell structures of our feet and hands are pushed closer to the particles of the ground and wall and they don’t like it and exchange photon energies so as to restore their normal state apart.

The particles in the ground behind our feet, in the wall and in our structure framework are mildly compressed together and they vibrate more as they exchange higher energies. We are agitating zillions upon zillions of particles in the wall, in the ground to which the wall is fixed, in the ground behind our feet and in our body structures.

The increase in inter particle energy is an increase in mass energy just as when we compress a spring. When we remove our pressure from the wall this gained mass energy is soon emitted as photons of thermal energy. It returns to the content particle energy exchanging state that it previously had.

Pressure in gases is created by holding their molecules closer together than they would wish. The particles of the gas molecules resist the closeness by increasing their photon energy exchanges within but more so between them and surround molecules. Force is the same in all directions which is what pressure is.

There are internal stress forces in the structure of a building even when there are no external forces on it like wind. They are due to the building’s weight which we say is caused by a gravity pull or force. Whilst Newton provided the means to calculate the attractive force he did not provide an explanation for it. Later Einstein’s curvature of space time by massive bodies became the scientific explanation for this attraction.

Einstein said that if you stepped off a high building you feel no gravity force and he was right. We do feel a force from the air trying to slow us down, as our surface particles exchange energies with the air particles, but we feel no pushing or pulling down force moving us toward the earth. So why do we accelerate toward the earth?

 It is because our body particles seek energy and pro actively move toward the major source of energy emissions coming from earth’s particles. They process and emit those energies as they accelerate toward them. When some of our body particles come close up to earth particles the energy exchanges become unwanted like those between us and the car we were pushing. Those energy exchanges now rapidly retard the photon energy linked particles that are us. If the exchanges are really high as happens when our speed of approach to the earth is high, our body structure may well undergo breakages and displacements. 

Stood on the earth our feet feel a force related to the energy exchanges between our feet and the ground. That is the force we call weight and it is related to the number of particles in us that seek energy (our mass). It is also related to earth’s emitted energies, which have a relationship with earth’s total energies (earth’s mass) and behave as though they radiate from its centre. This is the reason Newton’s universal law of gravity attraction expressed mathematically as the force F = GMm/d2  works (M and m are the masses (energies) of the two structures, d the distance they are apart and G, often referred to as big G is a miniscule constant).

Our earth is speeding through space emitting energy into space but gathering energy from the sun, moon and other space bodies. It is in a state of near energy balance. If it were not so it would warm up or cool down. The temperature of the earth is a measure of the energy exchanges between its many linked particle structures. Whilst there are sun related daily and seasonal variations, in the longer term the earth’s average temperature does not fortunately change much.

As an aside the current global warming concerns are that the increase in carbon gases in our atmosphere will cause the average earth temperature to rise a few degrees. Such gases collect earth emitted photon energies and re-emit them. Much energy that would have gone into space is returned to the earth. Global warming is said to threaten the very existence of life on earth.

Earth’s particles like our particles go in search of energy. That is why earth particles accelerate toward the sun. However earth doesn’t move close to the sun like we move close to the earth because the earth has a motion in space, a motion that is intent on accelerating it away from the sun.

Earth’s orbit is maintained by the desire of its particles for sun photon energies. Our diagram exaggerates the situation. At A a component of the desire is slowing earth down and will curve it inward toward the sun. At B a component of the desire is speeding earth up and will take it outward away from the sun. What this means is that the orbit is a mildly vibrating inward and outward motion with changing speeds.

Other space body energies like those from the moon bear influence on earth particles. In observing earth tides we are seeing how the energy desires of earth’s more fluid ocean particles react to the photon energies emanating from the earth, from the moon and from the sun.

The desire of atmosphere particles for earth energies creates a gas pressure of about one kilogram per square centimetre at earth’s surface. That pressure acts everywhere on the exposed surfaces of our bodies and in the airways of our lungs. Imagine a one kilogram bag of sugar on your finger tip yet we don’t feel this pressure. It is because our body particles exchange photon energies with the air molecules holding them at a distance and pushing back at one kilogram per centimetre squared and because our body touch sensors evolved to only feel changes to this norm. In the world of photon exchanges a kilogram per square centimetre is tiny. The photon exchanges in a steel bar amount to tons per square centimetre

I hope it is clear that what we see as the force of gravity is not a force at all. It is the desire that particles have for energies radiating from an energy source. Of course such gravity particle energy desires happen between particle structures irrespective of their orientation.

The particles of raindrops that stay on your window have a desire for earth energies but they are also seriously attracted to the energies coming from the glass of your window. They engage in close energy exchanges with the particles of that glass and “lock” into those energies. When the drops grow larger gravity forces break such locks and we see them splitting and descending down the glass. 

The capillary action of water in a glass tube similarly involves inter particle energy attractions both to the earth and to the glass. In narrow tubes the glass attraction is more influential and so the water rises higher up such tubes. Contrast the water with mercury whose more compact particles deliver higher more binding energy exchanges. The glass attraction still has an effect and in our diagram it has resisted the mercury rise up the tube.

There are many videos showing how water behaves when released in a space ship away from gravity. Many show how the molecular particles of water cling together and create spheres of about 7 cm diameter. They are shown responding to external energy influences. Others show how water wants to cling to an astronaut’s hands and arms and to face cloths. Yet others show how energy interactions with some particle structures keep water particles at a distance.

Einstein’s theories of relativity had much to do with his thoughts on gravity in which he saw massive particle structures as curving space-time and space-time as influencing the motions of massive particle structures. We often see pictures of curved coordinate systems round massive bodies looking like trampoline mats. But what is space time if not the photon energies passing through space. They are not only influenced by the desires of mass energy structures but influence mass energy structures. As to the time aspect, some of them take billions of light years to get from emitting particle to attracting particle. Time brings an ever changing scenario.

 Viewing structure particles as pro actively desiring energies explains their accelerations toward other structures and eliminates the need for a force of gravity. Weight becomes the force that arises when energy seeking particle structures like us go in search of energy releasing structures like the earth and find a state of energy exchange that is suitable to both bodies.

2. Why we exist

Why we exist requires an understanding of the why of evolution. Charles Darwin is noted for his work “On the Origin of Species”. He saw species as engaged in a struggle for food. They retained any useful variations that aided them in that struggle. He did not describe evolution as “survival of the fittest”, a Herbert Spencer did.

Life evolved first and foremost because its structures were superior energy gatherers and processors. Desires to survive and protect in sometimes hostile environments evolved to support that energy gathering role. The ability to recreate evolved because life’s particle structures liked the energy processing advantages they had. All species gather energy from their environment and so understandably the environment has always and continues to play a major role in determining evolutionary change.

On the evolutionary tree we humans are not special; we have adapted to our environment. We would not last long naked in a jungle like apes and gorillas do. We may regard ourselves as superior life forms yet we are also the most destructive of our planet environment.

We have been on earth a mere 200 thousand years. By comparison the dinosaurs were on the earth for 170 million years. Some were carnivores, most herbivores. It was how they got their energy. The extinction of those dinosaurs 65 million years ago made possible our evolution. During the dinosaur age our ancestors were burrow living shrew or mouse like creatures. Some 8 million years after their extinction we shared a common ancestor with the present day chimpanzee.

Long before dinosaurs roamed the earth and about 400 million years ago all life forms were in the seas. The first land based creatures evolved from sea life. They were able to survive because plant life had begun flourishing on the land about 50 million years earlier. Not only did they survive but they began evolving so as to better gather and compete for food energy in that changed environment.

We humans and all animal and plant life forms are many celled variations of the same eukaryote cell type. Multi celled fossils date as far back as 2 billion years ago whilst fossils of smaller, prokaryote single celled life, like bacteria, date to 3.5 billion years ago. Theory has it that eukaryote cells developed from prokaryote cells and that cells originally developed in the warm thermal vents of early rock formations. These earliest cells are said to have been created about 750 million years after the earth had formed some 4.6 billion years ago.

We would describe ourselves and other evolved life forms as proactive and so must regard the earliest of cell life forms from which we came as proactive. Those earliest cells were able to evolve because much energy was present along with the right mix of basic atomic elements in a fluid form. So how did reactive inanimate particle structures become proactive living cells? The answer is they didn’t. Atomic particles were always proactive living nodes of energy, seeking and processing energy. Particles came together and thrived in cell fluid structures because they were more efficient at gathering and processing their energy desires.

Particle energy nodes proactively seek energy. If free to do so particle structures will move toward energy releasing particle structures. It is the very nature of gravity. But particles don’t want excess energies either. If when moving close together particle structures are unable to make for more energy efficient arrangements they will proactively and increasingly exchange energies so as to slow their approach and move apart. Forces between structures are the proactive actions of energy linked particles that release photons with the intent of moving the structures apart. They do this to avoid excessive photon energy absorptions and to go in search of a more stable energy exchanging location. In the Large Hadron Collider particles move at near light speed because they want to get away from the light speed photon energies that are pushing them. Those pushing photons compress the fragments of energy that make for the pushed particle.

There are about 37 trillion eukaryote cells in our human bodies and each cell has about 100 trillion particles in it. They are all cooperating and communicating via energy links because they benefit from the superior energy gathering capabilities of the whole. Each cell has a genome; a DNA instruction set for the whole organism, comprising chromosomes and genes. It enables cells to understand what the whole is about and what their specific role is. It also enables them to maintain, repair and re-create themselves. Cells clearly have intelligence but I say that intelligence resides with their particle contents.

We are also the host to many variations of protokaryote type single celled bacteria whose numbers are greater than our cell numbers. Most are beneficial to us and support our energy processing systems. They get their energy needs from us. They degrade the food we eat, assist in making nutrients available to us, they neutralise toxins and help defend us against infections by protecting the surfaces they colonise.

Our abilities to move about, manipulate objects, to see, feel, hear, smell, taste, remember and decide a course of action all evolved to help us better collect the energy desires of our particle structures. We developed in what were sometimes hostile environments. We were once hunter gatherers and early tribal rivalries were about competing for food resources. Over time we learnt to maintain animal stocks and grow crops to meet our energy needs.

Unfortunately, the evolutionary developments that gave us the means to compete with others so as to satisfy our particle energy needs are being used in ways that may be to the detriment of all species and to our survival. We now have self harming, stressed out societies where economics and greed rule. The rapid use and misuse of resources has a day of reckoning in the future.

If humans could cooperate in just a fraction of the way in which their body particles cooperate we could easily satisfy our particle energy needs, live in secure, comfortable environments and relax like our pets do. Stress is a signal telling us our particle structures are unhappy with the pressures we place on them. They are the real source of our desires, existence and intelligence and will act in the long term in their interests.

The particles of energy within us have been around since the birth of the universe and when we die and are buried or cremated not one of our particles is destroyed. Our particle energies survive in new energy structures, cooperating therein to their mutual benefit and continuing to seek more efficient energy exchange arrangements. They may become some part of another life form. Our particle energies don’t die.

3. Human energy

We and other animals rely on plants for energy. Without plants there would be no animals, no us.  Plants have the same basic eukaryote cell type as us but with features that we and animals do not have. One such feature is chloroplasts that contain genetic material able to photosynthesize.

The photosynthesis process uses photon energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide it takes from the air and water it takes from the roots into the simple sugar that is glucose (C6H12O6). The process releases oxygen. Glucose is an energy efficient structure but with an energy content that can be released by the process of respiration (a reverse of the photosynthesis process).

Plants use the simple sugar that is glucose to make the more complex sugars of starches or carbohydrates as they are called. It is how they grow and multiply the cell structures of their roots, stems, branches and leaves that go in search of energy and nutrients. They also create fruits with seeds containing genetic instructions enabling their replication. Many plants in winter shed their energy gathering leaves and survive on their energy stores.

We eat carbohydrates and break them down in our mouths and in our intestines to the simple sugar that is glucose. Our circling blood takes it and oxygen from our lungs. to trillions of our body cells. Any excess glucose is stored, for later use, as glycogen (a more complex sugar) in our liver or muscle cells. We don’t just get carbohydrates from plants. Dairy products are an animal source of carbohydrates.

In the cytoplasm of our body cells each 6 carbon sugar molecule of glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of a 3 carbon sugar called pyruvate. The process is called glycolysis.

If the cell needs energy and has an adequate supply of oxygen mitochondria organelles floating within the cell cytoplasm take two molecules of pyruvate and combine them with oxygen to release energy, water and carbon dioxide. The process is called aerobic respiration. We may view it as a complicated reversal of the photosynthesis process.

Mitochondria use the above energy release to convert ADP (adenodiphosphate) taken from the cell cytoplasm to create its higher energy form ATP (adenotriphosphate) that goes back into the cell cytoplasm.  Understandably there are many more mitochondria in energy using muscl cells.

The ATP in cell cytoplasms are energy store; a few seconds worth of power that when used returns ATP to ADP. This aerobic method of delivering cell energy is the preferred and more efficient way but not the only way that cells can get energy.

When exercise is vigorous and extended and cell oxygen levels are depleted our cells get energy from the pyruvate in a less efficient but quicker way. The process is called anaerobic respiration. It is a fermentation process of the pyruvate that delivers ATP energy into the cytoplasm very quickly but less efficiently. The process produces the toxin lactic acid that quickly becomes lactate to be taken by the blood to the liver for processing back to glycogen or glucose.

Animals, like plants also provide us with fats and proteins. Fats we process and store in our bodies. They provide cell protection, insulation and energy when carbohydrates are exhausted.  Proteins are chains of amino acids that our digestive system breaks down into simple amino acids. They are used by cells to build and repair structures and to create enzymes and hormone messengers that support body processes.  Proteins can be used as cell energy but only in an emergency when other sources are depleted.

Now we know how we get energy how do we use it? When our brain requires an action a tiny electro-chemical energy pulse signal is transmitted down the long nerve cells of our central nervous system. The signal triggers selected cells to move chemicals across their membranes. Calcium that is short of electrons is moved close to muscle fibres (also long cells). The electron free spaces attract many of the electrons in the long cell structures that are muscle fibres, shortening them. That is how our muscles contract. Remove the electron shortage and the muscle relaxes. All muscles are somewhere between contracted and relaxed. Good for you if yours are more relaxed.

By way of an example the upper thigh muscle shown extends the leg by contracting. It relaxes when other muscles (not shown) at the rear of the leg contract to bend the leg. When extending the leg we apply a force between our foot and the ground so as to move us away from it. We will learn more about the nature of these forces later.

Movements we make are a mixture of contractions and relaxations of muscle cells. What seems to us as a smooth motion is actually a lot of on and off muscle actions. In the worlds strongest man competition we often see pronounced vibrations as muscles come under pressure. But in everyday use they provide for the most sensitive of touches. We are an assembly of many highly efficient energy systems with highly complex energy controls.

In my previous article I said particles have energy desires and that cells developed because they more efficiently satisfied particle energy desires. In this article we see just a little of how the evolved highly complex, yet highly efficient electro- chemical processes within us satisfy and support those particle energy desires. They did not evolve and produce us for our benefit. They did it for their benefit.