Visible Light Energy

Visible light energy radiations are just a tiny part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. We are able to see this small band of radiations and so it has been the most studied. Whilst this blog is about visible light much of what is said is applicable to the rest of the spectrum.

If you have not red my blog on radiation I there explained that photon energies are pulses and that they, like particles, interact by exchanging energies. Photons energies cohere but they are also influenced by particle energies. So let us consider cohered light passing an edge or through a slit. It diffracts but why?

Diffraction is most evident with monochromatic light that is cohered with plain wavefronts, shown blue in the diagram, which also shows and identifies just 6 of the millions of photon energies in the light beam.

What appears to us as a sharp material edge is in reality a photon exchanging particle structure and it bears influence on and attracts the passing photons, highly attracting those closest to it, less so those furthest from it. The structure attractions are why the photons follow a curving path.

The photons want to maintain both their independence and spatial coherence but to achieve that the bundle of photons represented by a would have to slow substantially whilst the bundle represented by f, would need to speed up substantially. They cannot do that and what happens is photon bundles break up. Bundles a and b do succeed in staying cohered and turn the most. Bundles c and d cohere and turn less and e and f cohere and turn least.


The secret to maintaining an equality, or for that matter an inequality, is to treat both parts of the equality the same. Whatever you do to one side of an equation do the same to the other and equality will always be maintained.

Algebra involves unknown numerical values that are represented by letters. Being unknown means you cannot combine them with known values. But you can combine or deduct them from multiple values of themselves. The process of solving algebraic equations involves manipulating unknowns to one side of the equation and knowns to the other.

When learning about quadratic equations we will be told that the solution to an equation of general form ax2 + bx + c = 0 is x = [ -b ± √(b2 -4ac)] /2a
Let’s have a go at proving that

Start by dividing throughout by a so that x2 + bx/a + c/a = 0 and then try to factorise it in the form (x + ?)(x + ?) + some constant = 0.
Clearly to get the term bx/a the ? bit has to be b/2a

The expansion of (x + b/2a)(x + b/2a) = x2 + bx/a + b2/4a2
and if we deduct from both sides of this equation b2/4a2 and add c/a we get
(x + b/2a)(x + b/2a) b2/4a2 + c/a = x2 + bx/a + c/a = 0

So (x + b/2a)2 = b2/4a2 – c/a and x + b/2a = ± √ ( b2/4a2 – c/a )
which when simplified leads to x = [ -b ± √(b2 -4ac)] /2a

Radiated Energy

Particles are alive; their energy desires take them toward energy sources where energy excesses cause them to withdraw. It is why particle’s vibrate or relocate according to their energy surround. High photon energy environments result in high particle energy interactions and thereby more rapid particle vibrations. Even higher incoming photon energies result in electron particles moving to perhaps temporary new locations in their parent atom further from its nucleus. Yet higher still photon energies can move electrons out of an atom so that they are under the influence of another atoms nucleus.

The photon energy releases emitted into space by particle interactions vary in energy content and associated frequency. The variations form the electromagnetic spectrum as under and the range of energies is considerable. Even the least energetic gamma ray has an energy pulse about 20,000 times bigger and more frequent than that of a visible light pulse whilst typical radio wave energy pulses are a mere one millionth of those of visible light.

Photons are pulses of energy that leave particle structures at light speed (about 300,000,000 metres a second) and engage with particle structures at light speed. You might think of wavelength as the space distance between the rising (like direction ) light speed energy pulses. The chart above shows how wavelength varies considerably across the spectrum range

You can imagine how the energy pulses of the longer wavelengths create wave like influences on the receiving structures particles. You may also imagine how the higher energy pulses of the shorter wavelengths will act like particles when interacting with structure particles. Remember structure particles are themselves composed of energies.

We are told that light speed is the same everywhere; that it is a universal light speed. Is it not more likely that it is consistent in its interactions with particle structures and therefore always the same when we measure it. After all. we cannot measure photon speed without involving particle structures. If you have ever wondered why photon energies from space bodies that are moving rapidly away from or toward us are red shifted or blue shifted consider this.

Example: absorption frequencies (the black lines) shifted in energy toward the red

Photons leaving a structure moving rapidly away from us do so at light speed relative to that structure. On joining our solar system and heading earthward they are encountering photon energies moving at light speed relative to the solar system heading earthward at a speed greater than theirs.

It is as if you have been walking slowly along a rural lane and now join a city pavement where the pace is faster. What do you do? You use energy to speed up. That is precisely what the photons from outer space do, particularly as energy interactions with the earth based photons will be less courteous than most of the general public. We see them as red shifted because they have used some of their “on board” energies to interact with and speed up to be in tune with earth photon energies. Photon energies like independence but are supportive of one another in flows.

We recognise an absorption or emission pattern coming from a fast receding or fast approaching space body as being the same as that coming from an earthly elemental structure and thereby know that it is coming from the same elemental structure on the space body. The shift is an energy loss or gain related to the relative speed of the space body and us. It is energy lost or gained to maintain light speed in the current energy environment.

Much scientific argument is about whether radiation energies are particles or waves. The particle argument has photons as frequency related packets of energy but there are no packets. The wave theory of light originated with the idea of an aether that filled space. It was the media through which light propagated like the expanding ripple on a pond that propagates in its water media when a stone is thrown into it. But there is no aether. Photon radiations are responsible for all energy interactions.

Visible light photons of energy are what pass across space from an object to the retina particles of our eyes enabling our brains to create the image we see. The ripple we observe in water, and indeed all observed motions, are caused by photons acting on particle structures. Our senses of sound, smell, touch and taste are likewise brain interpretations of photon energy signals transmitted to it from our body sensory particles that are responding to the photons they receive. But what are photons of energy; are they particles or waves?

I can only imagine them as being, like the vibrating particles that emit them, a composition of energy fragments. But are these photon energy fragments spread out across a full wavelength rising to a peak when vibrating particles are nearest and falling to a trough when the vibrating particles are furthest apart or are they compacted into particle like photon energy pulses that send them to and fro? Do engaging particles exchange energies continuously or do they exchange them as discrete (set value) energy packets?

If we regard engaging particles as being composed of fragments of living energy, that want to control their engagements, there is every reason to suspect that they make the decision to release photon energy pulses. It means they choose the timing and the level of photon energy releases so as to secure their withdrawal from the engagement and supports Max Planck’s E = hf and the idea of energy quanta.

Photon energy emissions flow at light speed away from their source. We should not think of them as having purely linear motions because as we saw, when dealing with electricity and magnetism, particles have spin and generate spin energies around them. Consequently engaging particles will generate photon energy emissions with some element of spin.

Polarised light : Particles that have vibrating motions relative to one another and in a specific direction send out light speed photon energy pulses that are polarised in that plane. In a radio mast antenna, for example, its directional to and fro high frequency currents determine the alignment of the emitted photon pulses. They are usually horizontal or vertical and we align our receiving aerials so that the electron flows in it can best respond to those polarised photons.

What we term non polarised light comes from random particle motions. It is really photon energy pulses polarised in a multiplicity of directions. A polarising filter, as in sun glasses acts like your receiving aerial. Its material structure is usually doped with a crystalline structure whose electron vibrations are very much directional. In the polarising filters of sun glasses electron side to side vibrations dominate.

Photons that are highly influenced by other close by photons in their passage through space, suddenly become highly influenced by particles when they encounter a particle structure. The directional electrons in our illustration particularly attract and react to horizontal photon energies, influencing them and dispatching them elsewhere whilst the vertical photon energies are transmitted through the polariser in the normal manner. The light reflected from the surface of a lake has a high intensity of horizontally polarised light we call glare. Sun glasses seriously diminish that glare

Coherence: Atomic particles exchange tiny portions of their energies as photons. It is how they link up with one another and is what establishes and maintains them in the relative positions that constitute structures. Likewise, photon energies are not fixed. They too exchange tiny portions of their energies. They support one another in photon flows via tiny energy exchanges yet maintain independence.

Coherence is both the attraction that draws photons together in supportive flows but also the repulsion that holds them apart. It can be spatial or temporal. Spatial coherence is where like frequency photon pulses travel side by side with an almost unchanging distance separating them whereas temporal coherence is where photons follow at an almost unchanging time related distance.

I can only imagine phenomenal numbers of emitted photons at a distant tiny atomic location exchanging energies so as to establish their cohered positions relative to one another. Bundles, comprising high numbers of cohered photons (both spatial and temporal) form the energy pulses we call a wavefront. As the wavefront radiates outward into space the photons adjust their positions relative to one another and the bundles start to break up into smaller bundles. It is how light becomes less intense so that we no longer see detail but instead see blocks of colour.

We can’t see particles, even with our most powerful microscopes, and the atoms they create appear only as fuzzy shapes. Bring any structure up close to an observed structure and its particle positions are changed because particles react to photons and photons react to particles. All microscopes interfere with the structure.

Photon energies interact with other photon energies, as we have seen with coherence but their interactions with particle energies are considerably greater. In my blog on visible light we will see how these two competing desires and interactions are responsible for diffraction and refraction.

Simple calculus

When we are first introduced to Calculus we are usually required to just accept that if y = xn, then for any given value of x the rate of change of y with respect to x will be dy/dx = n xn-1

Lets see if we can make sense of why that is so by looking at the curve y = x3. Inset is a small section of the curve with a lowest x value of a-b and an upper x value of a + b.

What are the corresponding y values. They are (a-b)3 and (a+b)3 and similarly for any curve y = xn they would be (a-b)n and (a+b)n so let us look at expanding these terms.

The binomial theorum applies but we will use Pascal’s triangle. It tells us that (a+b)5 for instance is
a5 + 5a4b +10a3b2 +10a2b3 + 5ab4 +b5
Do you see the pattern – decending powers of a and ascending powers of b and numbers taken from the appropriate row of the triangle, the second number of which is always that of the power (n).

Can you see that (a-b)5 will equal a5 – 5a4b +10a3b2 -10a2b3 + 5ab4 -b5 and that (a-b)n will similarly alternate in sign because every odd power of a minus operation is a minus and every even power of a minus operation is a plus operation.

Let us now return to the slope of our graph and any graph y = xn . The vertical change is (a+b)n(a-b)n and looking at our patterns can you see that in the subtraction only the terms with odd powers of b will survive and that the number values will double.
For example (a+b)5(a-b)5 = 10a4b + 20a2b3 + 2 b5

If b is tiny then higher odd powers of b like b3 and b5 will be miniscule. By ignoring these the vertical (dy) change (a+b)n(a-b)n equals 2nan-1 b.
As our horizontal (dx) change is 2b the slope of the graph as at x = a will be 2nan-1 b / 2b = nan-1 i . e. for y = xn dy/dx = n xn-1

When in calculus we say let the change in x that is dx approach zero we aren’t making it zero and indeed its change is most relevant because without it there is no change and no slope on our graph.

The calculus formula that says when y = xn , that the change of y with respect to x will be n xn-1 works because if dx is tiny we can ignore the (dx)3 , (dx)5 and (dx)7, etc content in dy. At no stage do we ignore dx and in higher and more complex maths we have to be careful so as to not treat it as zero.

Time and Space

A few years ago I, along with my son John who had a good SLR Camera, acquired a telescope. The object was to further his and my interest in Astronomy.

We had some hard earned early successes and some failures. Later, when we had learnt much and added to our equipment, some of the images taken with our 6″ reflector telescope compared favourably with some internet images that had been taken using larger and more expensive equipment.

We, like the many other amateur astronomers went through a learning process. On our nights out I did the navigating and, because I am retired, I had the daytime during which to research the internet so as to improve our knowledge base and thereby improving our routines, making best use of the equipment we had and acquiring equipment that would help.

Some of the sub items here are just copies of the comprehensive notes I made. At A level physics I had learnt to draw light paths that showed how various lens arrangements brought things into focus. I could reproduce those diagrams but never understood them. Dealing with telescope optics brought with it much understanding of the behaviour of light.

Life of Stars

Nebula historically referred to extended space objects. The Andromeda galaxy was previously the Andromeda nebula before being found to be a galaxy. Nebulae are now space volumes of interstellar clouds and dust. The space volumes where the gas and dust are most dense we call diffuse nebulae; they are space volumes where stars are born.

The great nebula in Orion as taken from our back garden on a 6″ Newtonian Telescope. It is located in Orion the Hunter’s sword that hangs below his 3 star belt

H – Ⅱ diffuse nebulae regions are so called because a lot of hydrogen in them is in its heavy deuterium form. In this form of hydrogen its normal nuclear single proton is accompanied by a neutron so that its atomic mass is 2. Hence H – Ⅱ. Gasses in these areas are known as molecular clouds. They are a feature of spiral galaxies that contain much gas and dust in their spiral arms. The milky way, our galaxy, is just such a spiral galaxy and in our galaxy there are many such nebulae where stars are being born. The following are stages in a star’s life.

Stage 1: Molecular Cloud.

 The process by which the gas and dust of a molecular cloud start to collect in clumps is called accretion. It is thought that the universe’s earliest molecular clouds were entirely of hydrogen and helium and that only later clouds contained tiny fractions of heavier elements, probably from star explosions and emissions. Isotopes and ionisations are thought to be common in space.

The process of accretion is one in which heavier accumulations become more massive as they attract more surrounding dust and gas and the more massive the clump becomes the greater becomes the pressure on its core. In this way the desire for external energies cause core materials to become increasingly agitated heat up.

Stage 2: Proto Stars. 

Centres of these heated gas clumps are where proto stars are born. Being surrounded by gas they can at an early stage be observed by infra red telescopes that see the energies emitted by their cores. The star may spend a 100,000 years at this stage growing. Eventually the star starts radiating energy in excess of that it is taking on board and the cocoon of dust and gas around it gets dispersed by jets of what is called a T-tauri wind. The star has become a main sequence star and is now visible to optical telescopes.

Stage 3: Main Sequence. 

The star spends 90% of its life at this stage. After a few orbits of its galaxy it will have been pulled by others, from its birth area and into a space of its own. Its core is now undergoing a fusion process, started by the pressures built up in the previous stage. The fusion process is outputting energy at the expense of the star’s mass energy.

The fusion process is not a burning process. It is a number of nuclear process by which hydrogen in the hot core of the star is converted (fused) to helium, the processes involving a loss of mass energy to radiated energy. The energy output is given by Einstein’s well known E = mc2 where c is the speed of light. There is no explosive release of energy because gravitational pressures on the core determine the rate of fusion, but the fusion energy releases then counter and diminish the gravitational desires for energy.

The processes by which stars convert hydrogen to helium vary according to star mass which is usually a comparison with our own sun’s mass (solar mass). Stars like our sun fuse hydrogen to helium via deuterium and if their core temperatures are above 15 million degrees Kelvin via beryllium, lithium and boron. The fusion in stars with masses over 1.2 solar masses may involve carbon, nitrogen and oxygen and in stars of over 3 solar masses fusion is almost entirely via these elements. .

You may think a more massive star will last longer but that is not the case because fusion energy releases are scattered energy releases and on a large star less controlling of gravity

Stage 4: Giants. 
The stage of giant is not an automatic phase in a stars life. Small stars, with below 0.35 solar masses, never get beyond the above described stage. helium produced in their cores is convected throughout the star and they become red dwarf stars.

For larger mass stars when all the hydrogen in the core has fused to helium the star core starts to cool and rapidly contracts as gravity wins. But the layers outside the former core contain hydrogen, which now comes under pressure, heats up and starts to rapidly fuse to helium, becoming hotter than at the main stage. At about 108 Kelvin, the helium starts fusing to carbon.

The above happens as a helium flash in stars up to 2.57 solar masses but in a more controlled fashion in more massive stars. Star luminosity increases at this stage by by a factor of 1,000 to 10,000 and its outer parts swell so that the star becomes a sub giant, red giant or super giant. Betelgeuse is a super giant. Although the core and lower layers are now generating more energy than at the main stage the increase of size brings decreased surface radiation and such stars usually appear red.

In medium stars like our sun the heat is sufficient for the fusion of Helium into heavier oxygen and carbon. This process is much shorter than the hydrogen to helium fusion. Again, there is loss of mass and energy is output.

Stars, at main stage more than 5 times the mass of our sun will go on to fuse carbon and oxygen into neon, sodium, magnesium, sulphur and silicon and maybe into calcium, iron, nickel, chromium and others, with each stage shorter than its previous one.

Stage 5a: Planetary Nebulae. 

When gravity is insufficient for further fusion, stars, that were at the main sequence stage up to 7 times the mass of our sun, now have their hot cores sending out increased photons. These photons push the outer carbon and silicon elements into space creating a glowing planetary nebula (it looks like a planet) with a white dwarf star at its centre.

Stage 5b: Supernova. 

Stars that had masses above 7 times that of our sun (when at the main sequence) go the supernova route. When fusion ceases their iron cores implode from about earth size to about that of the size of a city in less than a second. Outer gasses are pulled in to strike the core and are compressed in the process. The compression causes the gasses to heat up to billions of degrees and within 15 minutes an explosion results. The super heated gasses carry heavy elements like gold, platinum and uranium into space. The star Betelgeuse is said to be near following this route.

Stage 6: Core Remnant of Supernova 

The core remnant after the outer layer has been thrown off at the above supernova stage determines what happens next and is as per the following table.


Vectors are scalar commodities that act with direction. If we know a car was travelling at 65 mph when an accident occurred we have a scalar commodity (mph) and a value on that scale (65). If we also have knowledge of the direction the car was travelling then we have vector information.

We manipulate scalar data all the time using plus, minus, multiply and divide operators. But can we and what does it mean to do the same with scalar quantities, that may be of different commodities but whose product has meaning to us, which act in different directions.

Before we go any further, let us consider a practical example. The diagram shows the basic operation of an electrical motor. View the currents as going away from you and coming toward you. The role of a commutator is to arrange for such current flows. The force, and therefore the rotating torque, is related to a multiplication of the magnetic field strength and the current flow.

The field strength, current and force are all vectors. The resultant force vector is at right angles to the other two vectors and in this case, but not in all, they too are at right angles to one another. As such they deliver the greatest forces and hence the greatest rotary torque. I hope my inclusion of this example helps in establishing vector multiplication as useful.

Clearly one way of showing both size and directions is to draw the vectors on graph paper using a coordinate system. We use the length of an arrow to represents the size or scalar element of the vector and its alignment and arrow head to represent the direction of the vector.

If the vectors are about forces that you and I exert on an object, then when we push in the same direction the magnitudes of our pushes add and if we push in opposite directions they subtract. However our pushes on the same object point can be in all manner of directions. Each one can be in any compass direction and include an element of thrust upward or downward.

If I am pushing northward and you are pushing with an identical force toward the south west we can guess that the pushed object will move both to the north and west. Combining vectors geometrically gives us the combined force in both size and direction as long as we draw the vector lengths to some scale and with the right relative directions.

It may be more convenient to work out the result algebraically.The top triangle from the above is illustrated here and using the cosine rule from my blog on trigonometry we can use the equality shown to determine the size of the result.

Once we have R we can determine the part of it that acts to move the object west and the part that acts to move the object north. These are as shown in green. Like the M and Y forces that actually delivered R these two component vector forces would deliver the R result. We have if you like resolved the vector R into two components, an east/west one (x axis on a graph) and a north/south one (y axis on a graph). But we can look at these green component vectors in another way and consider them as scalar multiples of unit vectors. One is a scalar multiple of the unit west vector shown in red and the other a scalar multiple of the unit north vector in blue.

Multiplication of Vectors

In normal multiplication we multiply scalars together and get a scalar. We can do so because they are on the same scale. We have seen above how we can componetise vectors into north, south, east and west and we can likewise do so for up and down. All such component vectors have a scalar element and we can multiply those scalars together to get a scalar or dot product, as long as we confine ourselves to multiplying the scalar elements that lie on the same linear scale.

For example, consider two vectors A and B that have scalar components along the x, y and z axes as indicated by the suffixes that describe them and as converted to vectors via the unit vectors i , j and k along those same axes. Be aware. in what follows, that we are doing scalar multiplication and that the scalars of the three unit vectors i , j and k are all equal to one.

When written out in full the dot product of the two vectors is as under
A . B = (Ax i + Ay j + Az k) . (Bx i + By j + Bz k) and to expand that product we have to multiply every term in the first bracket by that in the second bracket.
However, whilst we can multiply i scalars together, j scalars together and k scalars together because they are on the same scale all other scalar multiples are not possible because they are on scales orthogonal to one another (at right angles)
So the dot product is A . B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz

To multiply two vectors together and get a third vector we again set out to multiply all the bracketed components as above but changing the dot to a cross to signify that we are doing a cross product. We now multiply just the terms that are orthogonal. In our example above the motor force only arises when there are components of magnetic field an current acting across one another. so in the cross product we ignore i x i, j x j and k x k.

But there is a cyclic rule for multiplying the other unit vectors as shown. So for example i x j = k and k x i = j whereas in the opposite cycle j x i = -k and i x k = -j

A x B = (Ax i + Ay j + Az k) x (Bx i + By j + Bz k)
= Ax By ij + Ax Bz ik + Ay Bx ji + Ay Bz jk + Az Bx ki + Az By k j
= Ax By k – Ax Bz j – Ay Bx k + Ay Bzi + Az Bx j – Az By i
= i ( Ay Bz – Az By ) – j( Ax Bz – Az Bx) + k( Ax By – Ay Bx )

The above result we express in the form of the matrix left. Right, a cross product vector is shown geometrically. It is at right angles to those multiplied and its magnitude is that of the yellow area and equal to AB sinθ.

In our motor example the angle between current and field is a right angle ( sinθ = 1) and the force that delivers the torque is at right angles (orthogonal) to both of them. The force is also related to the product of current and field. The yellow area is in this case a square whose sides are vectors with different scalar measures (field strength and current) and whose cross product is a vector that has another scalar measure (force).

Chemical and Nuclear Energy

Every particle movement in a structure is an energy change but too small for us to notice. However many particle movements can involve energy changes that are substantial.

Changes of state as between, for example, solid ice, liquid water and gaseous steam happen naturally because structure particles always want an arrangement that best suits their environment.

In winter when the environment is low in energy water will become ice. As the environment warms the ice will take energy from it and use it to change its particles to the structure that is water because that structural arrangement now better suits its energy needs in the changed scene. If we now put water next to a heating element in a kettle the water changes its particle structure to that of steam because that now better suits it in its changed environment. The released steam in the now changed environment soon reverts to tiny unseen molecules of water in the air or will condense on your window or hand, if held in the path of the steam.

Changes of state are energy changes but not chemical or nuclear changes because particles are not lost, gained or shared with another structure, they are just either closer together or further apart. Chemical changes are changes that involve the loss, gain or sharing of electrons whilst nuclear changes involve the loss or gain of nuclear particles.

We do not bring about chemical or nuclear change. Particles decide when it is in their interest to make such change. What we do is provide the environment in which it suits them to make such change. Particles are always in search of a more energy efficient arrangement because it is a one in which they have most stability.

Chemicals in a battery want to rearrange their particles in more energy efficient structures. Those rearrangements involve releasing electrons at the negative terminal and taking electrons from the positive terminal. They are restricted in doing this because the terminal particles also want efficiency and stability. Connect a circuit that allows electrons to flow and the battery chemicals can start to rearrange themselves in more energy efficient ways. Particle and photon interaction energies proactively make the changes. We just create the enabling environment.

All chemical changes are energy changes. Electron energy collections can be shared by the protons of two atoms. We call it covalent bonding. Electrons can move from one atom so as to predominantly supply the energy needs of another in what is called ionic bonding. The illustration shows chlorine atoms as having taken electrons from the sodium. When discussing electricity we met metallic bonding in which electrons can’t make up their mind which to supply.

A lot of high energy holds nuclear particles together and when they decide they can find a better and more stable energy arrangement it usually involves considerable energy release.

Electrical and Magnetic Energy

When calculating electrical energy we use formulas that are hard to reconcile with those of mechanical energy yet each can be converted to the other. Electrical energy can be equated to mechanical energy because we have chosen electrical units to make them so. Whilst mechanical energy is mostly about the interactions of whole particle structures via photon energies, electrical energy is mostly about the interaction of the outer electron particles of structures via photons.

Electrons gather energy from the environment on behalf of nuclear particles. To perform that duty they need their own space and therefore interact with other electrons via photon energies so as to keep at a distance. Electrons are energy linked to protons because of their energy desires but less so when they are obliged to occupy positions furthest away from nuclei. In fact outer electron can link to more than one nuclei as with covalent, ionic and metallic bonding.

The metallic bonding in silver, copper gold and aluminium is such that outer electrons cannot make up their minds where they can best serve protons and they wander from atom to atom moving other electrons as they do so but all the while providing an energy feed from the environment that links them to protons.

Such electrons are not free but we can give them a directional flow that moves them in a cascade fashion round a circuit via their light speed photon energy interactions. We do so by providing a voltage source that delivers surplus electrons to one of its poles and removes electrons from its other pole.

Any move one outer electron makes almost immediately instigates movements in other electrons via light speed (300,000 kilometres a second) photon interactions. It is why energy can be conveyed over vast differences very quickly.

We should not think of electrons continuously on the move. They are generally spending considerably more time in atoms linking to protons than they are moving between atoms. Typical progress of an electron along a wire is a half metre every hour. When the moving electrons encounter an electrical load like a motor, heater or light electrons have to gang up and jointly a push that drives that load.

Electrons have a property called spin. I believe it is the result of their internal energy fragments spinning and related to the direction in which the electron is travelling. Some of the photons exchanged by electrons are spun off them and when many electrons have like directions of motion they spin out low level photon energies in the anti clockwise direction to their travel that are attracted back into the photon flows being exchanged by electrons.

The magnetic field that we see circling clockwise around a current carrying wire is actually photon energies being flung out from electrons with like direction spin as a result of their many like direction motions. We see the magnetic field as circular, related to the current flow and diminishing with distance from the wire but the field is really of photon energies that spiral outward from electrons and then spiral inward to electrons.

When the current related energy links are rising some of the driving energies go toward growing the magnetic field energy and when the current related energy links are falling the now collapsing magnetic field energy is trying to sustain the current flow. This is precisely what self induction is.

When two adjacent currents flow in opposite directions the circling photons passing between have like direction but want their own space and in pushing one another apart push the wires apart. When currents flow in the same direction photon flows between them are in conflict and many choose to go around both wires and that draws the wires together.

We should not think of neutrons, protons and electrons as being of fixed mass energies as they take on board and release photon energies that are general tiny relative to their mass energy. Nor should we think of photon energies as fixed. Like particle energies that interact via photons, photon energies interact by exchanging tiny portions of their energies. Magnetic photon energy interactions enable all electrical machines to work.

Electromagnets are just wire coils producing high volume photon flows. Soft iron is much used to support such photon flows because its outer electrons will align with and support such flows, even when they are reversing rapidly as with alternating circuits.

Permanent magnets are hard, rigid particle structures whose outer electrons have been given a like alignment during the manufacturing process by a powerful electromagnet.

Motion and Energy

Wikipedia describes the scientific view of kinetic energy as follows. “In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes”

The work-energy principle, we also learn, is that an increase in the kinetic energy of a body is caused by an equal amount of work done on the body by the force acting on it.

E = 1/2 mv2 is how we calculate kinetic energy. It is applicable when a steady force produces a steady acceleration on a mass M over a distance so that it achieves from a standstill a speed v. It is equally applicable in decelerating that mass steadily to rest. You can immediately see why it was thought that the accelerating energy must be acquired by the moving object and released in the deceleration process.

But what I cannot understand is why we still think this way. Do you really feel as if you have gained some energy when you are running and if so where do you think that energy has come from ? Does a 30 mph car engaging with a 90 mph train environment have more energy than when the same car at 30 mph. engages with a tree.

No wonder many scientists regard energy as a mathematical construct because that is precisely what we are making it into by saying a body has energy on account of its speed and then in gravity situations we allocate an object at height a higher potential energy than the same object at a lower level.

There is no force that accelerates an object at height toward the earth. There is a desire by the particles of the object for earth energies and that is what accelerates a free to do so object toward the earth. The object gathers speed but there is no force pulling it or pushing it toward the earth. There is no external energy driving its motion. The motion is born of particle energy desires for a more stable energy state. The structure will gain a little in mass energy as the earth emitted photons and air particles apply a motion restraining tiny upward force but insufficient to overcome the desire.

When the speeding structure nears the earth the influence of earth emitted energies on the falling structure rapidly increase and influence the motion of the structure decelerating its particles and accelerating them away in a vibrating pattern where mass energies gained are released as heat photons into the atmosphere as the object settles into a more repetitive vibrating state that we see as stability and which it prefers.

Though impossible to achieve two identical bodies travelling at different yet steady velocities through space and free from any external influence will have exactly the same particle mass energies and be exchanging the same photon energies. I repeat, there is no motion energy store. We are wrong to teach children there is and they grow into scientists who do the calculations and think there is a motion energy store.

Energy exchanges that act to separate structures will add to the mass energy of those structures. However that mass energy will increase significantly more for structures that cannot part easily than for structures that can part easily. The inner balls on a Newton’s cradle have their mass energies increased at the expense of motion.The outer balls gain little in mass energy because they are able to move away.