Energies of space

Theory has it that the earth and the other planets were formed out of the same gas and dust cloud nebula that formed the sun. It was due to gravity attractions which we here know to arise from the desires of the dust and gas molecule particles for energy. Such desires would result in their moving closer together. The original earth then collided with a Mars size body called Theia and out of that collision came the present earth and its moon.

We should now know that the collision was not one of matter striking matter but one of increasing energy interactions as the particle structures came up close to one another. That interaction would have rapidly changed from one of attraction to one of extreme and increasing repulsion. The extremely high photon energies involved would displace and scatter countless particles. Those particle desires for more stability and the high levels of photon energies involved would lead to the more energy efficient and energy accommodating molecular structures that are liquids and gases. Less dense particle structures would do most of the moving gathering around more dense particle structures creating larger energy efficient spherical structures and becoming in time the earth and moon.

The earth, some 4.5 billion years after this event has a solid crust between 3 and 45 miles thick that floats on a mantle of hot moving rock about 1800 miles deep that is a liquid magma at its greatest depths, near earth’s core.

Earth’s outer liquid core is mostly of nickel and iron and below that an inner core of solid iron that rotates faster than the earth. The extremely high inward photon pressures that arrive at the inner core prevent it changing to a liquid structure and the high average photon energy exchanges deliver a temperature of 10,800 degrees F.

Reduced photon pressures at the outer core level allow for a more spacious particle liquid structure with a lower temperature. This liquid is rotating twixt the earth’s mantle and faster inner core. Many iron and nickel electrons are circling like those in a magnet coil delivering a highly intense core magnetic field of cohering photons that extends in a curve around the earth. The south magnetic pole is near earth’s north pole. Earth’s north pole was so named because a compass north pole pointed there.

Some may think the earth core is still hot from that incident some 4.5 billion years ago and wonder how that can be so. The reason the earth core is very hot is because photon energies are drawn inward from space and from earth’s emitting particles to be absorbed by the dense core energy desiring particles before they release photons in a more diverse way. Inward photon pressures increase with depth below the surface and photon energies exchanged increase. Under such pressures particles still seek the most energy efficient positions in their environment and they use their gathered energies in a constant fight to find such positions. Core temperature and density are all about that on going fight.

Electro magnetic radiations from the sun that warm earth and pressure its core are not a one way affair. The sun has a near spherical shape because of the desire of its particles for inward photon energies. Without inward photon pressures on its core there would not be the level of photon energy exchange in its core needed to trigger the fusion process that we so much rely on. Fusion converts sun hydrogen to helium in a process where mass energy becomes photon energy. Four tons of hydrogen per second undergo the conversion delivering 380 billion billion joules of photon energy per second. Clearly it is an energy efficient process but it needs inward photon energies to start and sustain it. The core desires that pull in the photon energies needed for fusion are opposed by the fusion emission photons. Increased fusion slows the fusion process allowing the gravity photon desires to increase fusion. This control mechanism stops the sun exploding and controls its energy output.

The high photon energy exchanges on the sun deliver its plasma state. Plasma is ionised gas in which the electron energy gatherers are ever changing their energy links and photon feeding many different nuclei. It is estimated that the fusion energy releases undergo so many particle exchanges that it is thousands of years before they arrive at the sun surface and become the photon energies emitted into space. There many are attracted by planetary particle desires, whose motions toward such energies we see as gravity.

The big bang story is that the entire universe’s particle matter was compressed into something about the size of a golf ball. That seems incredible but as earth’s particles are in over 99.9999% space and if as I suggest all particle energy nodes are over 99.9999% space then why not? The desire of that ball structure of energy for external energy must have been enormous causing an inrush of photon energies from vast space distances. When there were no more inward photons maintaining its shape the the extremely high levels of exchange energies within it big bang energy radiated energy in an explosion like that of a huge supernova? Supernovas are stars whose energies are suddenly rapidly dispersed.  Some radiate more energy in seconds than our sun will radiate in its lifetime.

Theory says that in a fraction of a second the efficient energies that are neutron particles came into existence and started a process of creating protons, electrons and nuclei. Big bang particle energies are still moving outward and now, some 13.7 billion years later we are at a stage where particle desires for photon energies have pulled a small percent of those particle energies toward one another so that there are more than a trillion galaxies in our universe. Our galaxy, called the milky way, has over 300 billion stars in it. Imagine the energy interactions of all the particle structures within a galaxy that are responsible for structure motions and add to that the inter galactic energies at work. Mathematics struggles with a three structure interaction. It has no chance computing the motions where so many complex interactions are in play.

There is nothing to slow the particles and structures of galaxies now furthest from the big bang except for their gravity desire for photon energies. Though tiny and getting tinier, I believe they will eventually cause the particle structures to reverse their motion. What I am saying is that the expanding universe will contract and in time the big bang will repeat. I understand this view differs from that of many scientists who predict that all ordered energy structures in the universe will become disordered so that energy is spread ever more thinly but they do not see particles as alive and with energy desires like I do.

We previously saw why emitted photon energies from different structures were related to frequency. It was because the particle movements and their associated energy exchanges are all about best satisfying the energy needs of particles as situated and energy linked in the structure they are in. Not only are external emission energies linked to such internal energy activities but photon absorptions are particularly selected if they can support those activities. Those who have pushed swings know the pushes are most effective if linked in some way to the swing motion. Each particle structure has its own range of resonant and near resonant frequencies. More dense solid particle structures have a greater range; tiny gas structures like hydrogen have only a few resonant frequencies. One of the roles of electrons is to select suitable frequencies and avoid or collect and despatch unwanted frequencies

Above is an emission spectrum for extremely hot iron. Its structure emits a whole range of photon energies, each with their own frequency. Most of us will have seen how in heating an iron bar we at first see a dull red that becomes an orange and then yellow before turning white when the hotter blue photons are also being emitted. That white light is not made up of all the visible light frequencies as is revealed by the spectrum created on passing it through a prism. If we didn’t know the source of the emission the spectrum pattern would reveal it to be iron.

Sometimes an identifiable spectrum pattern is seen but shifted in energy and frequency. The pattern shift is either to lower energy/frequencies (red shifted) or to higher energy/frequencies ( blue shifted). Science has decided that red shifting is associated with space bodies moving at high speed away from earth and blue shifting with space bodies moving rapidly toward us. Why do these shifts happen?

Some liken it to the doppler effect experienced with sound when its source is moving to or away from us but sound is about the movement of particle linked movements in response to a pulsing source. Shifting is about the changing of source emitted photon energies. My view is that photons emitted by the particles of say a moving away galaxy are despatched at light speed relative to that galaxy and they travel through space at that speed. To join solar system photon flows and be at ease with them they must speed up. It is like being slow on a crowded walkway. The photons use “on board” energy to speed up and that is why they are of reduced energy and when absorbed linked with lower frequency movements and emissions.

Einstein’s second postulate in special relativity is most interpreted as the speed of light is a constant in a vacuum everywhere irrespective of the motions of emitting structure and observer. What Einstein said was ” light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body”. I say particles are the same everywhere and that they emit and absorb photons at light speed relative to themselves. It means they are emitted at light speed relative to the emitting particle structure and received and absorbed at light speed relative to the absorbing particle structure. When there are serious velocity differences between emitting and receiving structures we see a change in the energy of photons as they adjust speed to that of the receiving structure energy flows. Is it for that reason that we always find light speed coming through a vacuum to be constant.

It is estimated that only 5% of the energy of our universe is in stars and planets. The other 95% of the universe’s energy we cannot see. About a quarter of that unseen energy is thought to be dark matter and the rest dark energy. So what is dark matter and what is dark energy?

I think of dark matter as the mass energy of tiny space particle structures that are not big enough to send out any noticeable signal but which along with vast numbers of like structures bear observable influence on visible structures that we then cannot account for. These tiny mass energy structures have developed from the particles thrown out by the primordial big bang.

Dark energy must surely be the photon energies that pass everywhere in space. Think about the million trillion photons of energy landing on each square centimetre of an earth object every second. They have taken 8 minutes to come from the sun so there is a lot of such energy in space on its way to us and the other planets and into outer space. Now apply that thinking to the photon energies being emitted by the 300 billion stars in our galaxy and from the over one trillion galaxies in our universe. Realise that some of those photons passing through space take billions of years to get from source to destination and it should not surprise you that the level of dark energy is so high.

Black hole densities are much greater than those of neutron stars. I can only guess that neutrons break down under the extreme energy pressures. They must break up into energy fragments and bundles of increased turmoil, like that pre big bang. Light cannot escape a black hole. Black hole scientific data is obtained by monitoring the x-rays that leave black holes.

The energy attractions of a black hole can act like a shredder pulling in the particles of nearby stars and other black holes. A distant black hole will consistently but unnoticeably attract earth photon emissions, thereby exercising a miniscule but relatively steady pull on earth particles. Two black holes spiralling into one another deliver to earth tiny fluctuating forces. Ligo (laser interferometer gravity observatories) use heavy weight mirrors suspended in long vacuum tunnels to detect
those fluctuating pulls on earth. Earth movements as small as a thousandth of a proton width and with frequencies as low as ten cycles per second can be detected at the Ligo mirrors. They are said to be evidence of gravitational waves and they are described as ripples in the curvature of space time.
It is truly amazing that we can record such gravity fluctuations from merging distant black holes. But are not these gravitational waves just powerful distant photon energy interactions?

Medical equipment

This might seem a strange subject to discuss when the overall subject matter is energy. However there are some interesting energy interactions involved in medical scanning and so below I explain how some such machines work but using my views and explanations of energy.

X Ray Machines:

The production of x rays is illustrated in the diagram. A voltage of about 100, 000 volts between anode and cathode means there are more electrons at the cathode than are needed to supply proton energy needs. They are already jostling for position and when we input photon energy by heating this cathode they become even more agitated and some become loosely linked to the cathode protons.

At the anode there are electron shortages. The proton desires for photons are not being met by their surround electron and photons are being drawn from any emitting structure like the glass tube and cathode. The loose linked electrons respond to the anode photon flows sensing a need for their energy gathering services and use their energy to accelerate toward the anode.

The electrons are heading for electron “holes” in the tungsten structure but their speed causes them to overshoot and increase photon energy exchanges with other electrons that don’t want their close approach. The high speed electrons may at this stage be releasing many x rays. Many anode electrons are involved in resisting the high speed electron approaches. They are issuing photons that oppose their motions and that gives them reactionary motions. Even electrons in positions close to the nucleus are set in motion leaving “holes” that the tungsten proton desires for energy want to fill. The photon flows to them encourage local electrons to accelerate into these “holes” but they overshoot them and exchange photon energies intent on positioning them into these more stable space locations.

Lots of local electrons are being encouraged to move into more desirable “holes”. Each such move is associated with exchange kinetic energies as described above. Some released energies are in the x ray range and some pass through a small window in the lead shield. Most released energies are lower photon energies that deliver considerable heat. The rotating anode is one of a number of measures intent on dispersing this heat.

The intensity of the x ray beam can be controlled and directed through a patient’s body to a camera that records the pattern of X-ray light that is passed through it. Bone, fat, muscle, tumors, etc all absorb X-rays at different levels. The denser particle structures of bone for example are more likely to absorb an X-ray photon. X ray photons are dangerous because they can remove electrons from atom structures upsetting their proper working in our bodies. However, our bodies have a repair capability and can cope with limited exposure to x rays.

Computed Tomography (CT or Cat Scan)

This type of scan also uses x rays but now the x ray tube can rotate around the patient’s body along with a detector panel on the opposite side of the patient. In addition the bed on which the patient lies can be be moved in and out of the machine. To improve the imaging and depending on the part of the body being investigated the patient may be asked to drink or be injected with a contrast medium.

Clearly with such an arrangement x rays can be taken from several angles and through many sections of the body. A computer program mathematically interprets all the data and produces a tomogram of the area under investigation.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Scan)

These machines use magnetism to scan human bodies. The electro magnets used are very powerful. Several miles of wire are immersed in liquid helium reducing its resistance to zero and creating a super conductor magnet.

Bodies contain much water and water contains hydrogen atoms with their single protons. Protons, like electrons, have a spin property. We saw when looking at magnetism how spin delivers a rotating magnetic field. Zillions of tiny proton magnetic fields are randomly orientated until we switch on the powerful magnet. When we do so protons have little choice but to turn and best align their mini fields with the main field that runs from head to toe.

Gradient coils and radio frequency coils are also a part of an MRI machine. They only come into play during the scan process. The gradient coils vary the powerful magnet field along the tube length whilst radio frequency coils deliver a pulsing magnetic field perpendicular to the main field. The pulsed magnetic fields are of short duration and interact with the gradient main field so that their combination acts on the protons, truing to deflect them from their their aligned state.

The photons emanating from the main and gradient field not only align protons but also mildly influence their structure positions relative to other particles. They thereby have a say in the frequency at which the protons at a specific section will resonate. Resonance occurs when the energy desires and motions of the protons match the frequency of supply photons. When the radio frequency delivers that resonant frequency appropriate to a section the protons absorb much such photon energy and move to and fro in line with it, flipping away from the aligned state.

When the radio frequency is switched off the flipped protons are intent on ceasing their resonant energy interactions and try to re align with the main magnet field. However different structure tissues relax at different rates and so the intensity of release of the photon interactions is different for bones, soft tissues, blood vessels and organs such as brain and heart. Receiver coils act as aerials, detecting and collecting the emitted signals which are used to create a sectional image. The images can reveal unhealthy tissue.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)

In discussing nuclear energy we saw how some isotopes in undergoing radioactive decay emitted positrons. They have near same energy as an electron but unlike an electron energy that seeks to maintain a distance from other electrons a positron energy will seek out and be attracted to an electron energy to the extent of annihilation outputting two gamma ray energies in the process. PET scans make use of such beta positive radiation.

In the lab an isotope with a short half life is most commonly added via a cyclotron to glucose (sugar) molecules producing what is called a radioactive tracer. For some investigations the isotope may be added to a protein or a hormone. The tracer is usually injected into the blood stream of a patient who then lies on a bed that passes in and out of a circular detector. All this has to be done quickly because of the short half life of the isotope. The isotope may be Carbon 11, Nitrogen 13, Oxygen 15, Fluorine 18, Gallium 68, Zirconium 89 or Rubidium 82.

The blood has the role of taking glucose sugar to every cell in the body for the purpose of energy production and so all cells are soon radiating positrons that annihilate close by electrons and emit gamma rays but at a level related to the energy activity of the cells. This is particularly useful as cancer cells are noted for being high users of energy. PET scans do not so much deliver a picture of the human body as a picture of its levels of activity. They are therefore most used in conjunction with the machines earlier described.

The gamma rays are emitted in pairs but in near opposite directions. They are detected by a scintillator material that fluoresces when struck by high energy photons. The light output passes through photo multipliers and along with details of bed position enable the establishment of a 3d picture of body activity levels.


Consider an object with mass energy E1 approaching at speed and closing on an object of mass energy E2 regarded as being stationary. The energy desires of the mass energy in the approaching structure are such that they do not welcome the close approach and they release as photons some of their mass energy E1 in an appropriate directional way to slow and reverse the approach. The approached object does not want these high volume photon energies not does it welcome the close approach and it too is releasing what would otherwise be a growing mass energy E2 to also oppose, slow and reverse the approach.

The above is my description of the energy interactions that slow and reverse structures in a collision. The interactive thrusts they provide are not steady. They get higher as the objects get nearer and reduce as the objects move apart. However at any point in time within the duration of the collision they are equal and opposite.

Those ever changing but common thrusts act on the mass energies E1 and E2 so as to slow them. If E1 is small relative to E2 they will slow it more rapidly. The motion changes of the energies are proportional to the common thrust as distributed over and acting per unit of mass energy. Since mass and energy are just different units of the same thing it means that in any one direction the mass times the velocity change of one object is equal to minus the mass times the velocity change of the other object. This wordy description explains in energy terms why the conservation of momentum law, derived mathematically above works.

Many are fascinated by Newton’s cradle and so I will try to explain in energy terms why it does what it does. It comprises a number of balls on wires in close contact. Most will know that if we draw back one ball and release it the ball at the other end of the cradle will respond with a near identical motion but in the opposite direction. If we raise and let two or three balls go the response similarly involves two or three balls.

When we lift and release ball 1 the desire of its particles for earth energies accelerate it earthward, albeit restrained by its support wire. It makes a curved approach to ball 2 particles at a gathering speed. A collision as described above now occurs between balls 1 and 2. The energy linked particles of ball 1 are rapidly slowed whilst the photon energy linked particles in balls 2, 3, 4 and 5 are put in motion.

In a perfectly elastic collision (no such thing) the internal photon energies acting within the balls hold their particles rigidly apart and the motion of any one particle immediately affects the motion of others. In the case of our steel balls the internal photon energies act at light speed between particles setting them rapidly in motion with very little compression of the distances between them. There is little mass energy added to the balls as a result of the collision. The photon energy exchanges also pass between the particles of the close contact balls. The energy linked particles of ball 5 are not restrained like those of balls 2 to 4 and so its motion is almost a reflection of the motion of ball 1.

If the balls had been made of plasticine some collision energy would come to reside in the compressed particle structure as added mass energy. The linear momentum along the line of the balls is still conserved in this inelastic collision because the linear thrust from particle to particle and ball to ball remains fixed.

Be aware that during the time of a collision neither mass nor velocity are fixed but their product in a specific direction is because the directional thrust is. If we want to measure mass and directional velocity we should do so when they are most stable immediately before engaging in the collision or immediately after release from the collision.

You may ask why just ball 5 moves when ball 1 is released yet balls 4 and 5 will move when 1 and 2 are released. I have explained above how all particles and balls are set in motion in response to the collision energy pulses. When two balls approach the cradle ball 2 starts to interact with ball 3 producing a pulse that passes along the cradle and releases ball 5. However at photon light speed the slowing ball 2 is interacting with ball 1 and so adding to the pulse. The pulse is not an instantaneous one but one that rises and falls in a short time and probably with two peaks because balls 1 and 2 are separate energy linked structures. The pulse continues after ball 5 has been set in motion and sets in motion the now free of restraint ball 4.

The balls are photon energy linked to one another but not bound together like their particle contents. Observe how after a few Newton’s cradle swings the motions become less perfect as the balls lose a little of their close contacts with one another.

Colliding energies make every effort to stay apart because they value the energy efficiency of their independent structures. The interactions may cause them to take on board added thermal energies, but they do not take on board kinetic energies of motion.

So what is energy?

The late Richard Feyman, a well respected physicist said ” It is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge of what energy is” Energy is there in light, heat, food, mechanical, sound, gravitational, electrical, chemical, biological and nuclear forms. Many of these use their own units prompting Feynman to say “For those who want some proof that physicists are human, the proof is in the idiocy of all the different units which they use for measuring energy”.

Our universe is one of energy and space. All observed motions and interactions are the result of energy desires. Energy is an everlasting living pro active thing. It is there in neutron, proton and electron energy nodes, in all other discovered energy nodes and in the photon energies they exchange. Different energy nodes have different roles to play but they all communicate and interact with one another in the interests of the whole.

We are just advanced energy gathering and storing structures that it created. All of our energy driven senses, systems and abilities evolved to satisfy the energy needs of our particle nodes. Energy will only do what it wants to do. It has desires and, by creating the conditions where it can satisfy those desires, what it wants to do can also be what we want it to do. So what are its desires?

a) The desires of particles

Particles have different roles to play. If there is a more controlling particle in structures it is the neutron. Its name might lead you to believe that it has little or no involvement in activities, but I suggest protons and electrons are there to support neutron energy desires. The more mobile electrons link to the surround environment and provide neutrons with their energy needs via protons. Neutron’s seem to desire some protection that gives them a degree of stability no matter what turmoil there is in the environment. They can create protons and electrons and can reverse those changes as befits their energy desires. They can dispatch a positron energy particle to annihilate an electron and create gamma ray photon energies when required. Neutrons are not neutral, they are pro active in getting the energies they want.

Electrons are about a 2000th the mass energy of the protons and neutron particles in the nucleus. Their size makes them much more mobile than the nuclear particles and their support roles involve the avoiding, intercepting, collecting, dispatching and delivering of photon energies. Being energy collectors means they energy interact with other electrons so as to have their own space volumes. They are also held at a distance from protons to control nuclear energy flows.

The diagram shows how an incoming photon absorbed by an electron sends it toward a proton. The proton and electron don’t want to be closer and they exchange energies to reverse the motion. This kinetic energy thrusts the electron away but one of its roles is to feed energy to nuclear particles and the desire to do that slows the electron down.

If the incoming photons are of low energy the electron will most likely vibrate about its established location. If the incoming photon is high the electron can locate in an accepted location further from the nucleus leaving a “hole” to be filled or even escape the atom.

Protons are the collectors, processors and emitters of nuclear energies. They take energies from electrons, which is why in most structures proton and energy numbers are near the same, and energy feed neutrons. On earth those energy feeds and the associated energy discharges are high volumes of low energy photons. The high volumes make for a strong nuclear force and their low energy ensures that the photons are easily attracted to the nuclear particles. It is why the “strong nuclear force” does not act beyond the nucleus.

Perhaps the best example of our putting particle desires to good use is in electrical energy flows where we use the desire of electrons to keep at a distance from others to move mass energy along wire. Semi conductor technology is likewise mostly about particle energy interactions. In it we dope semi conductor materials like silicon and germanium that are quite stable and electrically of high resistance with other elements that make them less stable and thereby reacting to energy pressures in ways that we desire.

b) The desires of interacting structures

Some particle structures come together and stay together because their particle energy needs are better catered for. Some come together but undergo change for the same reason. Here we discuss the majority of structures which don’t want to come too close together because there is no energy advantage doing so. Yet neither do they want to be too far apart because being close better satisfies their particle energy needs. The action of particle structures is not unlike the above described electron actions.

Energies emitted by structures moving too close to one another decelerate and then accelerate apart those structures. These motion changing interaction energies we call kinetic energy. They may noticeably compress a structure’s particles together in the act of deceleration and acceleration. In doing so they add to structure mass energies but such gains are soon lost when the structures are at near steady speed. The gains are not a motion energy store and there is no motion energy store. In fact structures in near steady state motions have a mass energy the same as that when at a supposed state of rest. I say near steady state because in reality any velocity is a vibratory state of accelerations and deceleration’s because no structure is ever truly independent of others.

Particles in structures are energy linked but will move to satisfy their energy desires. If there are multiple energy sources around a structure the structure appears as going nowhere. If there are dominant energy sources near the structure all particles and therefore the structure move to such sources. These motion changing energy desires are what we term gravity. They draw structures together noticeably accelerating smaller structures toward larger ones but as described above, when coming too near kinetic energies increase to thrust them apart. Stood on the earth we are in a never ending but unnoticeable vibratory state where the desire of our structure particles for earth energies is opposed by the interacting kinetic energies that resist our structures close approach. In fact the same applies to every object on the earth.

We often use the gravity desire for energy to our advantage as with the water that comes out of our taps and the pendulum swing of a clock. As to kinetic energy, it is present in every thrust that changes an objects motion. Many a time those thrusts are induced by a deliberate release of structure energy.

Potential Energy is just what it says it is a reference to a yet to be implemented desire of energy for change; a potential output energy if you like. Particles held at a height above the earth, like water in a dam, petrol, batteries and compressed or extended spring all have potential energy. They all have mass energy which they will readily part with so as to become more efficient if the circumstances are right.

c) The desire of a structure to be energy efficient

The atoms of the periodic table are all efficient particle combinations, with some more preferred than others. Their particles have come together and work together, performing their roles so as to satisfy their energy desires more efficiently than they could separated. When such elements join together as molecules or compounds they do so in the interests of energy efficient. When in a high energy environment they will change to more efficiently accommodate the additional energy they take.

Einstein said “If a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation its mass diminishes by L/v2”. His v was a reference to the speed of light. He was clearly telling us that mass is energy and that radiant energy given off is a loss of mass energy. It puzzles me as to how science continues to speak of photons as having no mass when it accepts that photon radiations emitted from a structure diminish the mass energy of that structure.

To me the mass energy of a structure is the total of the fragments of energy that make for particle mass plus the photon energies acting between those particles that are its photon mass. The mass of a photon may be so tiny as to seem like nothing but the numbers of interacting photons are such that they are a considerable part of a structures mass energy. Understandably, the mass energies of structures are forever mildly changing as they continually exchange photon energies with other structures. By presenting them with an opportunity to be more efficient we can secure substantial energy releases.

Stand next to a bonfire and feel the heat coming off it. Much energy is being released as we burn (oxidise) the wood. The wood is being changed into the more energy efficient structures of carbon dioxide, water vapour and ash. The burning of petrol in car engines similarly releases much mass energy but in a controlled manner that allows us to use it. The potential energies mentioned above were all potential mass energy savings, often confusingly termed binding energies.

Living structures like plants make mass energy changes. They take particle energies from the earth and the air and photon energies from the sun so as to grow efficient mass energy structures. They are a mass energy store. Animal and human life structures use the mass energies of plants and other animals. Our digestive system and respiratory system take in and process mass energies that we store as mass energies in our particle based body cells. We store those mass energies for use by our body particle energy gathering activities.

I have previously explained that we evolved to satisfy particle energy desires in a sometimes hostile environment. Our modern desires have strayed from this basic purpose and only time will show how particles determine our future evolution.

d) The energies of photon interactions

Photon energies are common to all of the three forms of energy desires I list. We should not picture them as passing outward from or inward to particles in straight lines. The theory of charge is one in which a test charge measuring the influence of another charge finds it to be distance related. It then assumes an all direction straight line radiating energy field but that is not how it is. In reality wherever you place the test charge in relation to the under test charge they become aware of one another’s photon emissions and attract them if that is desired.

Particles are never still because of their interactions with photon energies. Their desires for photon energies mean photon flows to them are all curving, highly curving in the case of low energy photons as we saw when looking at magnetism. High energy starlight has been shown to curve passing our sun. We should also think of photon energies as interacting with other photon energies, moving in flow paths following other photons or alongside other photons as in cohered energy flows.

We have seen in discussing electricity, magnetism, light and space energies that photons exchange energies and interact. The principle that all particles emit at light speed and absorb at light speed makes sense. However in structures where energy exchanging particles are making many relative movements that would only be possible if photons used their “on board” energies to change their speed and match it to the desired and required light speed. In view of what we know about particle energies I am convinced this is what happens. It was my explanation of red and blue shifting.

Radiant energy is described as the energy of electromagnetic waves. It is seen as massless photon particles or as waves that are emitted into space at light speed by vibrating particulate matter. They travel through space at light speed and are absorbed by often highly distant particulate matter. These radiant photons can have wide ranging energies that are linked to their frequency as in the spectrum shown.

Although science attributes the source of radiant photon energies to moving electrons and protons, it rarely speaks of photons as passing between particles within structures where electron and proton motions abound and where there is considerable space between them. Instead it teaches that a particle charge property is responsible for particle attractions and repulsions. If it does mention photons they are virtual.

Energy measures

There are many ways we calculate energy. We use E = mc2 to calculate mass energy releases, either E = 1/2mv2 or E = Fd to calculate the interaction energies that deliver structure motions, E = mgh for gravity energies, E = VIt for electrical energy, E = 1/2LI2 for energy held in a magnetic field and E = 1/2C V2 for the energy stored in a capacitor. The terms in the various calculations have all been defined so as to deliver energy results that are comparable.

It is difficult to reconcile one equation with another. They are all about mass energy changes or potential mass energy changes. Interestingly the 1/2v in the 1/2 mv2 references an average velocity in an assumed linear acceleration (something that is increasing less true at high speed interactions). There is no 1/2 in Einstein’s famous E = mc2 because there is no acceleration. Might it be that the less directional motions of energies within particle nodes are all at light speed.


There is no energy other than that in particles and photons. Energy in the raw is there in the mass energy of particles and the mass energy of photons. Whilst total mass energy is never lost local mass energy may choose to rearrange or re-position itself if such change is to its benefit. We may see changed mass energy in motion as a result. Potential energy, binding energy, radiant energy, thermal energy, nuclear energy, etc are like kinetic energy all references to aspects of mass energy. Kinetic energy is the photon mass energy that delivers motion change. It may add to mass energy during the motion change but it does not become a velocity related energy store.

Here at the end of my articles on energy, my hope is they have set you thinking and that at the very least you now see particle structures as living energies in control of their actions rather than as inanimate objects that are pushed about. Perhaps you will also see that the teaching and understanding of science doesn’t have to be so mathematical. The majority of students won’t have careers in science or engineering and even those who do may only rarely use its mathematics.

Regards, Albert Simpson.

World Wars

In November of 2018 we in Great Britain remembered the centenary anniversary of the end of the first world war. This war was mainly fought in Europe on two fronts, a Western Front through France and an Eastern Front in Russia. Germany with the support of Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria had fought France, Britain, Russia, Italy (changed to this side 1915), Japan and from 1917 the United States. The war extended beyond Europe because the participants had extensive and sometimes adjacent colonies in Africa as well as a few in the far east. The war was also a war at sea.

In 2019 we remembered the 75th anniversary of the D Day landings of 1944 that led to VE (Victory Europe) day in the May of 1945. The D represented an unknown invasion Day when British, Canadian and US troops would try to set free the German occupied territories of France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Greece and Yugoslavia. That day turned out to be the 6th of June 1944. But again and even more so this war was a world war. The Japanese Empire (they did not surrender until the September of 1945) and the Italian Fascists were in full support of Nazi Germany. In opposition were Great Britain, troops from the British Empire, the Free French, the Russians from 1941, the USA (from December 1941 -after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour) and China (who had been at war with Japan from 1937).

You may have ancestors who were involved in these wars. If so you share that with lots of people throughout the world who had ancestors killed or injured or who suffered in some other way as a result of the wars. Statistics concerning the numbers of dead, missing and wounded can often be estimates that are give or take a few million. So the figures I give below are estimates only and intended to show that these wars were not just about us. They were world wars.

In the four and a quarter years of the first world war it is estimated that about 20 million died, half of which were civilians. Add to that a figure of over 20 million wounded and we get a feel for the human loss and suffering of this war.

The table reveals that whilst Russia had at 1.8 million the highest deaths of military personnel, the civilian deaths to Ottoman Turks were at 2.1 million even higher and Serbia’s 16.1% loss of its population is indicative of the suffering there.

Not included in the table are figures for North, East and West Africans who fought and assisted in the war both in Europe and in Africa. About 71, 000 African soldiers are recorded as having died fighting in Europe but there is also an unknown loss of African labourers there. Not so much is known about the soldiers and labourers that died fighting in the European owned African colonies. One estimate says about 155,000 labourers died in the East African conflicts alone.

World war 2 lasted 6 years from 1939 to 1945. 70 or more million people, some 3% of the world pre-war population are estimated to have died as a result.

In war a country’s control and boundary may rapidly change and supply chains become chaotic. Populations can be displaced, moved or even lost to starvation. Occupying forces may take most resources and treat populations harshly and thereby contribute to significant deaths. Some occupied countries do not accept accept their new masters and so adopt guerilla tactics that likewise add to deaths.

Available stats have huge errors so my table of deaths is illustrative only and makes no reference to what must be similar numbers of injured. Each figure will have its own unique explanation that you can discover if you so wish.

The table shows the United Kingdom fared better in ww2 than in ww1. Its loss of about 400,000 is much the same as the USA loss (of which about 100,000 was in the far east). Both losses are dwarfed by the near 27 million loss of the USSR (In Belarus about 25% of the population died). It is also small in relation to losses in Poland, China, Yugoslavia, French IndoChina, the Dutch East Indies, Germany, Japan and India whose total deaths all exceeded one million.

Ww2 did not just involve the ambitions of Hitlers Nazi party and of Mussolini’s Italian Fascists. Japan’s Emperor Hirohito was already extending his empire in the East and sought to take advantage of the war by taking colonies that were in the possession of European powers and the USA . Japanese actions at Pearl Harbour on Hawaii in 1941 brought America into the war.

Wherever there were colonies they were involved. Colonies might be required to supply troops for use in the war (Germany had many Africans fighting in Europe). C olonial peoples would be required to defend the colony or fight against a neighbour colony. Many colonial peoples suffered greatly at the hands of occupiers and particularly where they were the subject of battles. There losses might have been comparatively small yet highly significant to them.

War was about human desires that lead to confrontation. Those same human desires to dictate and dominate are still there in this world today. In Europe we may be war free but the majority are still controlled by the few and Governments support that scenario. O for a world of sensible but freely given cooperation where people only take their essential needs of food and security from the environment. It would be a happier less stressed world for all.

My Rubik Interest

A work colleague of mine brought a cube into work in the days when Rubik cubes were new on the market. He and his family had given up on it and he handed it to me to play with and I did. It would come out of my desk drawer at every spare moment. I slowly realised that certain repeated movements would return some blocks to a same state whilst manipulating the positions or rotational positions of other blocks. I wrote down the patterns of movements I made and recorded the changes they made. You believe me none of that is easy when you are working with a scrambled cube and I have to confess I did on occasion take the cube apart and reassemble it in its completed state.

Eventually I put together a solution like that shown above. It is a bit long winded compared to solve methods derived by others and available on the net but it worked. It was all based on just two move sequences, that when repeated in a sequence delivered a desired change. It’s one merit is that you do not have to learn several algorithms as in the solutions I provide in the menu.

Later when my interest in 3d programming arose and in particular in the virtual reality modelling language (VRML) it was only natural that one of the 3d models I would create would be a Rubik cube. Building it was easy but then animating it was another challenge.

I am no Rubik cube speed merchant but I can scramble a cube and comfortably solve it while the TV adverts are on – using any one of the methods described – not very fast I know but my brain does not work at the pace it did.

Nuclear energies

Nuclear changes are, like chemical changes, also about energy efficiency but unlike chemical changes, where efficiencies are obtained by the rearranging of particles and the giving up of not needed photon energy, many nuclear changes involve particles changing into other particles. The energies given up by nuclear changes are much higher and can be dangerous to life forms. They are referred to as radioactivity.

Perhaps the best known radioactivity is that of carbon 14 with its 6 protons and 8 neutrons. In each and every 5,730 year period 50% of carbon 14 nuclei will have become nitrogen 14. The process is called beta decay and involves a neutron becoming a proton and an electron and the emission of an antineutrino.

The lengthy half life of carbon 14 enables scientists to establish by “carbon dating” the age of a carbon life form remnant. A lesser known isotope of carbon, carbon 11 lasts only 20 minutes. The decay involves a proton becoming a neutron and is accompanied by the loss of an electron. Carbon 12 and 13 are energy stable.

As with my view of electrons I regard neutron and proton particles as energy machines with energy desires. They don’t just respond to surround energies they pro actively seek them; they are the source of intelligence. Each particle has a role to play. The much smaller more mobile electrons draw in energies, sort them and dispatch them either away from or toward nuclear particles. They find space away from other electron energy gatherers to best perform their role. Outer electrons may be involved in photon energy flows to several nuclei. Protons are intent on collecting suitable and limited photon energies from electrons and dispersing and exchanging high volumes of low energy photons with neutrons. dispersing it to neutrons. The vibrating nature of all particles results from their controlling of the photon energy streams that are exchanged between them.

Neutrons are in no way neutral. They too have energy desires and exchange energies with protons. They can create protons and electrons from themselves and did so in the first second of the big bang. The neutrons in earthly structures need adequate but not precise numbers of protons to supply their energy needs. It is why elements exist with varying neutron numbers for the same proton content. Such variations are called isotopes and some are more stable than others.

Neutrons and protons are about 2000 times bigger than an electron. The spaces in a nucleus are near that of their particle size. However we must not think of neutrons and protons as ball like because they both have very high percentages of space within them. Though they have never been isolated quarks are said to reside in nuclear particles with gluon energies acting between them providing the short range strong nuclear force. I think it more likely that gluon energies are simply high volumes of low energy photons. The high volumes of photons would account for the strength whilst their low energies would account for the short range over which they are effective. Is it not simpler to regard photon energies as the interacting medium between all particle structures.

Elements and their isotopes are neutron and proton combinations. Usually they contain an even (as opposed to odd) number of each. Each dot in the pink area of our graph represents an isotopes proton to neutron ratio. At low total nucleons we see a neutron to proton ratio of 1:1. At higher totals nucleons the ratio is about 3 neutrons to every 2 protons.

All isotopes are not of like stability. A line down the middle of the pink area would represent preferred protons to neutron ratios. Those toward the outside of the pink area and away from that line have either too many neutrons or too many protons and are more likely to decay to stabler energy states. More stable states have more energy efficient ways of getting and satisfying their particle energy desires..

Isotopes with large proton plus neutron numbers are also a cause of instability. The nuclei of large isotopes above Bismuth (209) are most likely to radioactively spit out alpha particles of energy. I think they do so because the outer particles are starting to make it difficult for the inner nuclear particles to gather electron energies. I also suspect that alpha particles are released because many internal structures are built from alpha particles linked by additional neutrons.

Not all large nuclei spit out alpha particles Some large nuclei can undergo spontaneous fission splitting and forming isotopes of two smaller elements, possibly accompanied by the emission of a few neutrons.

If the neutron to proton ratio is too big in a nucleus the desire will be to lose neutrons and gain protons and so a neutron becomes a proton and an electron (beta radioactivity emission). Also emitted in this process is an anti neutrino particle of energy in the process.

If the neutron to proton ratio is too small in a nucleus the desire will be to lose a proton and its associated electron and gain a neutron. This can involve pulling a low shell electron into the nucleus in a process called electron capture or by emitting a positron (beta positive radiation) that then goes on to annihilate with an electron. Both processes are accompanied by the emission of a neutrino of energy.

The last form of radioactivity is termed gamma radiation. It makes no changes to the particles involved and is the issue of high photon energies. It happens when high levels of energy exchanges between excited nuclear particles subside.

The graph below shows the binding energy per nucleon. The green area is where iron and the isotopes and elements close to it are in highly desirable energy states. The fusion area in red is where smaller nuclei move to become larger nuclei but with a less energy per nucleon, energy releasing, more energy stable state. The pink area is whereas fission processes may involve the changing of larger nuclei to smaller nuclei but again making for a less energy per nucleon, energy releasing, more energy stable state.

As an example of fusion the gravitational pressures in our sun core enable hydrogen to undergo fusion to helium via heavy hydrogen (gain of neutron) and light helium (gain of proton). Tremendous amounts of energy are released from a few grams of matter. No wonder science is experimenting (Tokamac) with fusion here on earth as it offers the possibility of clean energy with no burning of carbon and hydrogen.

As an example of fission atomic substations deliberately create the unstable isotope uranium 236 from uranium 235 so as to release energy as it decays to barium and krypton. The atom bomb used a similar but uncontrolled change.

Notes and thoughts on particle energies

Kinetic energy: Most articles on nuclear particles speak of kinetic energy as if it is stored in the particle in motion. My blog on potential and kinetic energy explains that there is no energy of motion. There are kinetic energy exchanges that create relative motion and there are kinetic energy exchanges that stop relative motion and in this respect particles are no exception. If near same speed particles in a linear accelerator interact there is little energy exchange between them. If they are going in opposite directions and they interact there are much higher energy exchanges between them. Kinetic energy is about energy interactions that change motions. It is not a motion energy store

Mass energy: I see the mass energy of a particle as being the sum total of its internal energies. The mass energy of an atom or molecule is likewise the sum total of its energies which now include the internal energies being exchanged by them.

External photon energy: All separated particles and particle structures desire and emit the photon energies of surround space. The desire may bring them closer to other particles or structures and increase the photon exchanges between them. Too close and the exchanges start to exceed the particle energy needs. Really close and the interacting energy forces are into tons. Most will move away; some may find it beneficial to undergo a change of state, chemical change or nuclear change.

Anti matter and charge: The anti matter term refers to anti particles. Every particle seems to have an antiparticle. The best known is perhaps the anti electron or positron and so we will concentrate on it. The positron has exactly the same amount of energy as an electron, but it is said to be positively charged. I liken charge to the suck blow actions of my garden vacuum. In suck mode it has a concentrated air suck and disperses the air. In blow mode it pulls in surround air and concentrates it in a blow. Protons and positrons have concentrate energy gatherings. Electrons have concentrated energy deliveries. It is why positive and negative are drawn to one another. However positrons can’t control electrons like the more massive protons do and so they collide and annihilate and producing high energy photons.

Neutrinos and antineutrinos: Antineutrinos particles of energy are produced in beta negative decay and neutrinos in beta positive decays and in electron capture. Their energies are equal and about one 5oo,oooth that of an electron. Neutrinos are produced in vast numbers in the energy changes of stars and travel at near light speed with very little desire to interact with particle structures. Like neutrons they have no noticeable charge but like neutrons they will interact with other energies if the conditions are to their liking. They will pass right through us and some will pass right through the earth but the deeper the structure the more they are likely to interact. They will on encountering their antiparticle annihilate to photon energies.

Quarks, W and Z Bosons: The standard particle model has neutrons and protons each comprising of three quarks that explain charge. Such quarks are never isolated and it is wrong to think of them as major energy contributors to the energy of a nucleon. The three quarks energies are only about 1% of the energy of a nucleon. W and Z Boson energies are high short lived energies that accompany some nuclear changes. As there are considerable photon energies acting between particles we should not be surprised that changing them involves the release and re-making of photon energy interactions.

I am no particle physicist and I understand very little of particle mathematics. But, as I have said before – my blogs are about making people think and thereby improving our understanding. I hope this blog has done that.

Chemical and State Energies

How do you think of chemicals? I view them as arrangements of matter particles that are themselves composed of energy; they are arrangements of energy nodes if you like. Particle energy nodes have energy desires and consequently absorb and emit photon energies. All structures from the smallest atom to the largest object in our universe are composed of energy exchanging particle energies. The particles in structures are always seeking to get their energy needs in the most energy efficient way. If there are energy savings to be made and if the circumstances are right they will chemically combine with other structures to that end.

In chemistry we learn about electrons, protons and neutrons. We learn of their arrangements in atomic elements and in molecules, mixtures and compounds. We discover states of matter, ions, isotopes and covalent, ionic and metallic bonds. We are introduced to chemical equations and learn how to balance them in terms of atoms, volumes and masses. Rarely do we hear that atomic particles seek to satisfy their energy desires in a way that uses least energy. Yet it is the fundamental reason why chemical changes occur. Chemical change is all about particles reacting to the energies of their surround environment and forming structures that more efficiently satisfy their energy desires in that environment.

If we ask why hydrogen and oxygen exist as the molecules H2 and O2 we are told they are more stable. But what is this stability? It is the result of particles coming together in more energy efficient, energy exchanging structures. There is less total energy (node energy and photon energy) and therefore marginally less mass in the molecule than in the two separated atoms. The atom particles combine as a molecule because together they use less energy satisfying their energy desires.

For some reason particles pro actively desire energy and want to get it in the most efficient way. Such desires for energy are the reason for light speed photon energy flows and the associated particle energy absorptions and emissions. Those same desires are what hold the particles of a structure at a distance and cause them to vibrate.

Water H2O is a more energy efficient combination of hydrogen and oxygen. We use this fact in fuel cells to harvest electrical energy. Simply bringing oxygen and hydrogen together in the right proportions in a container will not of itself create water and release energy because the molecules in the mixture are content with their energy interactions. However, if we input a spark of photon energy we upset that particle contentment and some re-combine as water, releasing photon energy. That photon energy further upsets the contentment and a rapid explosive energy releasing change to water ensues.

The burning of paper, wood, domestic gas and fuel in car engines are other examples where an activation energy is required to trigger chemical changes that release heat in the process of forming more energy efficient structures of particles. Chemistry is an extensive subject but I hope in giving you the above few examples I have started to persuaded you that chemistry is really a science of preferred energy formations. We will return to this later but now let us consider changes of state.

Whilst chemical changes are about combining particle structures in more energy saving ways changes of state (solid, liquid, gas and plasma) are ways in which the same particle content can accommodate more or less energy. One change of state we are all familiar with involves ice, water and steam.

In the depths of winter photon energies from the sun and therefore passing between earth objects are reduced. The energy collecting electrons in water consequently move marginally closer to energy desiring nucleons making the water slightly less fluid (more viscous). Some movement or impurity in the water triggers a change to the less energy consuming but more rigid structure that is ice. The change releases photon energies. Ice is unusual because although its molecules are denser than those of water the way they link together in ice is more space consuming. It is why solid ice floats on water.

Input photon energy to ice and it will melt back to a water structure that can better and more efficiently accommodate the increased energy. Continue adding heat and that water will eventually turn to its vapour form steam. The diagram below shows energy is absorbed as ice changes to water and water to steam. The reverse processes of condensing and freezing give up energy.

A thermometer cannot enter a solid structure or the molecules of a liquid or gas structure. It responds to the photon energies outside of the solid or passing between fluid molecules. During a change of state there are substantial changes in mass energy yet temperature remains steady. Added energy goes to either expand the structure of solids or in the case of liquid and gas molecules both expand them and their distance apart. The looser energy links between liquid molecules and even looser energy links between gas molecules are why a hand movement can part them but not solids.

Temperature and heat content are clearly not related. Particle structures vary considerably and with it their ability to accommodate thermal energies when at the same temperature. Look up and compare the specific heat and thermal conductivity for several different material structures and you will see that some structures are far better than others at holding heat and some are better at conducting heat. Compare hot sand with cold sea or observe how some oven feel hotter than others.

It might appear that the flow of thermal energy along a structure is temperature driven from hot to cold but that is not how it is. The “hot” particles emit more than “cold” ones and “cold ones” absorb more than “hot” ones so that heat is dissipated in a hot to cold direction rather than temperature driven. We might, for example view the sun as being all energy output and no energy input, but its particle desires that pull photons from space into it maintain its spherical shape. Moreover the desires of its core particles deliver and control its mass energy releasing fusion process. Similarly the gravity desires of earth’s core particles contribute to the heat at its centre.

In chemistry it is not uncommon now to be introduced to reactivity diagrams like that shown for metals. The diagram enables us to say that iron added to copper sulphate will replace the copper and make for iron sulphate and that magnesium added to zinc chloride will replace the zinc and create magnesium chloride. The diagram also enables us to say that the reverse reactions will not naturally occur.

Rarely are we told why the reactivity series works. It works because the particles of some metals in combining with the particles of water, acids and oxygen make more energy efficient structures than others metals do. The iron displaced copper and magnesium displaced zinc in the above examples because in doing so they made for more energy efficient structures. They released photon energies in the process.

Try not to be confused by the term binding energy much used to explain the stability of a structure. The word binding makes it sound like it is an energy within the structure but that is just not so. The binding energy is the external energy we have to input to break its bonds. More stable, more energy efficient structures need greater inputs of binding energy to break their particle bonds. The reversal of many chemical reactions, like that when we charge a battery, requires input energies to break and rearrange particle bonds in a way that accommodates the increased energy.

In all chemical changes the least attached outer valence electrons play a major role. That is because they are more sensitive to the energy desires of surround structure protons. If it is more energy efficient to do so they will transfer their allegiance in full or in part to surround structures and thereby form bonds with them. Of course any such changes also brings a rearrangement of associated electrons and nuclei.

The groups and periods of the periodic table of elements tell us much about the distribution of energy gathering electrons around the nucleus of each element. The table groups tell us how many electrons are in the outer valence shell. As the inert gases of group 8 are most energy stable we can conclude that outer shells of 8 electrons are desired.

The transition metals that occupy the large section in the middle all have, along with the alkali earth metals, two valence electrons in their outer shell. We should not be surprised that they have many things in common. One thing they have in common is they will readily combine with the atoms of non metals in group 6. It is a way of securing a more energy efficient particle structure arrangement with 8 outer electrons. Similarly the alkali metals of group 1 will willingly combine with the halogens of group 7 .

Chemistry is a science that is all about energy formations.

Garden solar project

I have a shed in my garden and I had the thought to put my caravan 12 volt leisure battery in the shed and use it to light the LED lights on and around it using its high energy capacity. Each LED light in its housing and strings of led lights would be connected via light twin telephone like cable to the shed. The existing solar cells and electronic circuits of the bought LED lights would be surplus to requirements.

As the project developed a wiring arrangement like that below developed.

Wiring all the LEDS to the same supply would allow for a single dark detecting circuit to switch on all the LEDS at the same time. A timer could be used to make the supply available from early afternoon and turn off the LED’s about 1 a,m, Clearly the 12 volt battery supply would be too much for the LEDS and so in addition to the 12 volt timer I bought a buck converter that would take the energy from the leisure battery at 12 volt and convert it to energy at a suitable LED supply voltage. The two items cost me about £10.

These buck converters have an adjuster on them and a read out that shows the output voltage. I used it to establish for each LED its forward voltage (the voltage at which it barely lit up). Increasing the voltage above this forward voltage will brighten a LED. Using my multimeter on its milliamp scale and in series with each LED or LED string I raised the voltage until the LED delivered a suitable output light. I recorded the current in milliamps at this stage as well as the voltage at which it did this.

The highest voltage was required by a string of 5o parallel connected LEDs. It was 2.9 volts and this became the output voltage for the “in circuit” buck converter. The other LEDS would need dropper resistors to deliver the previously established desired current. Those resistor values were calculated as follows for each LED or LED string R = (2.9 – Led Forward Voltage) / desired LED current

I joined several of the discarded solar panels in series and positioned them facing good light on the shed roof and used them to charge the leisure battery. At this mid winter time of year limited daylight meant the battery was being mildly discharged each day. The leisure battery required a recharge after about each three week period of operation which was acceptable. This discharge time extended as daylight hours extended and now in April it would appear that the solar cell input is sufficient to maintain the battery in a charged state.

Below a photograph taken by my son John of the bottom of our garden

I may as next winter approaches purchase a solar panel specifically for leisure batteries and wire it in parallel with the existing series panels. I can add switches, if need be, so that battery charge arrangements are appropriate to the time of the year and the energy needs of the system. .

Garden solar light circuits

We bought a number of solar light lanterns and ornaments for our garden. They were to cheer up our garden during the winter nights. The initial display they gave was to our satisfaction but then their need for constant attention made them more trouble than the pleasure they gave.

The main problem was that the battery charge energy provided by the solar panels during the short winter daylight was considerably less than that used during the hours of darkness and they remained on long after we had retired to bed and were often on when we awoke. A supply of higher capacity NiMh batteries and a suitable battery charger eased the problem but by no means was a satisfactory answer.

As time went by almost as bad were the failures. Switch and battery connections and even solar panel connections would corrode and cause failures. Sometimes the problem was with the circuit board and on rare occasions with the LED lights themselves. I would reverse engineer the circuit as best I could and try to repair them and replaced them when I couldn’t.

Most used the solar panel as a dark detector but the odd one used a light dependent resistor. Some had back up non rechargeable batteries that I did not replace. The troublesome switches that provided on, off and sometimes flash or twinkle I did not want. Circuits varied in complexity. Some were simple like that shown above and used through the hole components; others were more complex and used smaller surface mounted devices (SMD’s) soldered onto it with chips under a circular blob of resin on the board.

Similar in action to the YX8018 chip above is a QX5252F and I used it to make my own simple circuit boards. The main difference between it and the YX8018 is the pin connections and the solar panel voltage votage which is relative to ground rather than to the battery voltage. In both cases the solar panel charges the battery via on chip diodes that prevent the battery back feeding the solar panel in hours of darkness.

In neither circuit can the 1.2 volt battery voltage alone turn on the LED light because these LED lights need forward voltages of between 1.8 and 3.0 volts to turn them on. White LEDS need more voltage than coloured LEDS. The job of the chip and the external inductor are to provide a voltage that will turn on the LED(S). The oscillator on the chip is switched on and remains on during darkness hours when the solar cell voltage is low. When on it rapidly opens and closes a switch that connects one side of the coil inductor to ground.

Those of you who have read my blog on magnetism will know a current flow through an inductor delivers photon energy into its surround space (switch closed). When the current flow tries to fall (switch open) the surround energy returns to the inductor and pressures the electrons in it to try and maintain the flow. That pressure may be regarded as a voltage pulse within the inductor and in these solar circuits it adds to the battery voltage. Because the total voltage now exceeds the forward voltage of our LED it is able to send a pulse of current through it.

The solar circuits you see above when accompanied by smoothing capacitors are often used for converting a dc source to a higher dc output. They are often referred to as a “joule thief” circuit, joule being the unit of energy. Whilst they may deliver higher pulses of output energy in no way can their output energy exceed that input from the battery or other source.

The oscillator in the QX 5252F operates at about 75 kHz, turning the switch on and off 75,000 times a second. Our eyes see no flicker. Even 24 frames a second our eyes see as continuous video.

By changing the value of the inductance you can change the current taken by the LED and hence its brightness. Higher inductor values deliver less current and lower brightness but pleasingly longer battery life. I varied the inductor used to suit the LED(S), be they white or yellow. On my board shown the resistance like inductor is 370 microHenries.

Whilst the above simple circuit proved to be less troublesome and less energy consuming than the bought circuits I was still regularly changing batteries and charging them. My next blog is about a garden solar light project that has reduced my involved time considerably.