I remember at school drawing force diagrams. They always had forces that balanced which enabled the doing of calculations. A typical scenario was that in the diagram of a cyclist following a curved path. On it centrifugal force equaled centripetal force and weight was balanced by the opposing normal hold up from the ground.
One day at college our mechanics lecturer asked us to draw just such a diagram but showing only actual forces. Without exception everyone drew a diagram. like that shown. We had come together from various parts of the country but all of us had learnt of centrifugal force and not one of us had questioned its reality. The lecturer explained that there was no such centrifugal force, that the centripetal force was accelerating the cyclist toward the centre of the curved path he was following. Centrifugal force was an invented force just for the purpose of creating a balance and equal to the mass of the combination times its acceleration.
I tell the above tale because mathematics can be a wonderful tool but it sometimes doesn’t truly represent reality. In fact on this diagram we also show the force that is weight. We say it is the force of gravity and responsible for the acceleration due to gravity but is it a force and if so where is the downward acceleration in this scene.
We humans are energy structures just as the chair we sit on is an energy structure. When we sit on it, its energy structure reacts to our energy structure and we feel its pushing on our bottoms. The chairs energy doesn’t want our energy structure getting too close to it and so it pushes us away. Likewise our energy structure is pushing the chair energy structure away. It is the basis of Newton’s third law “for every action there is an equal and opposite action”. The difference between us and the chair is that we convey energy signals, from those interactions to our brain that let us feel and respond if we wish to.
If you previously thought your particles made contact with the chair particles, think again. What we feel as multiple contacts are just as much photon energy exchanges as are the photon energies of visible light that in their exchanges with our bodies give us sight. What we hear, the warmth we feel, our sense of smell and sense of taste are all similarly so.
The same sort of photon energy exchanges that stopped our particles from further engaging with the chair hold particles apart in structures. Particles don’t want to come too close to one another and they respond to ever closer approaches by releasing and exchanging ever higher levels of photon energy. It is why when you sit on a chair with someone on your knee you feel more pressure.
Of course pushing particles away is not the whole story. If it were structures would fall apart and they don’t; in fact many structures only part under extreme pressure. So particles in a structure clearly have an attraction for one another but what is its nature? Is it charge attraction or an energy attraction?
The external energy we have to input to break apart a structure is called binding energy and clearly equal to the attraction that holds a particle structure together. My view is that attraction is the desire that particle nodes of energy have for the energies released by the particles of their surround. Particle energies attract surround photon energies to them and in so doing attract the nearby particles releasing those energies.
When we humans have filled our energy stores do we continue eating? No we don’t and neither do particles. They have extremely tiny energy stores that they rapidly fill in moving toward and attracting energies. When they have satisfied their needs they withdraw from, discourage and release energies. They are doing this billions of times a second, more so if the photon energy supplies coming their way are larger, less so if those energy supplies are smaller
Particle desires for photon energies extend to particles in other structures. They are what hold us together as an organism and what hold the earth together as a space structure. They are also responsible for our being attracted back to the earth when we jump up. The attraction is mutual but the more massive earth does little moving.
The desire of particles toward energy flows is the attraction that we call gravity. There is no force pulling or pushing us toward the earth. The accelerating motions of bodies toward one another is the result of particle desires and when the bodies come up close to one another and those desires are more than satisfied they push each other apart and quickly settle into some interacting vibrating state.
The earth in space is a particle structure travelling at a speed that would take it away from the sun but its particles desire photon energies and the sun as a particle structure is releasing photon energies. Consequently many earth particles turn toward the sun, drawing the other energy linked particles with them. Energies collected and distributed are soon in excess of particle needs and many of earth particles want away from photon excesses.
There is no uniformity of action throughout the earth, no perfect energy scene for all particles within the earth. Those at the surface are more free and responsive. Those under pressure at earth’s centre are more inhibited in their motions yet vibrate at higher frequencies. There is a sum total response that the earth exhibits by either moving toward or away from the sun and thereby following an orbit around it. The earth is also highly influenced by the photon energies exchanged with the moon, as seen through earth’s tides and to a lesser extent by the planets.
Looking back at our cyclist diagram the pushing up normal force is in opposition to the desire for earth energies whilst the lateral centripetal force provides the particle thrust that enables the structure to deviate fro its would be straight line path.
It would not be unreasonable for you to ask at this stage why it is that some particle structures will combine or break apart to form other structures whilst others will want to stay independent and resist the approach of other structures. I will try to answer that in a blog on chemical and nuclear energies.